Table 1.

Relevant retrospective studies evaluating kidney immune-related adverse events after immune checkpoint inhibitor rechallenge

StudyNo. of Patients with Initial Kidney Immune-Related Adverse EventsNumber of Patients RechallengedImmune Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment Rotation% of Patients on Immunosuppression at the Time of Rechallenge% of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Acute Kidney Injury Recurrence
Isik et al. (6)16Combination to anti–PD-1
Anti–PD-1 to same
Anti–PD-1 to anti–PD-L1
81%n=3 (19%)
33% stage 1
33% stage 2
33% stage 3
Cortazar et al. (7)138
Stage 3
Stage 2 (43%)
31Most patients were rechallenged with the same ICI agent. Mostly anti–PD-139%n=7 (23%)
29% stage 3
71% stage ≤2
Dolladille et al. (1)276
Stage N/A
78Informative rechallenges mostly done with an anti–PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapyN/An=4 (5.1%)
stage N/A
Hultin et al. (12)23
Average creatinine at peak 3.8 mg/dl
5Four received anti–PD-1 monotherapy
One patient received single anti– CTLA-4
(40% N/A)
No recurrence of renal irAE
Espi et al. (9)13
Stage 1 (43%)
Stage 2
Stage 3 (21%)
5All patients were rechallenged with the same ICI all anti–PD-120%n=1 (20%) stage 2
  • Acute kidney injury stage according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes clinical practice guidelines: 1.5–1.9 fold from baseline serum creatinine (SCr) (AKI stage 1); 2–2.9 fold from baseline SCr (AKI stage 2); and over threefold from baseline SCr (AKI stage 3). PD-1, programmed death 1 pathway; PD-L1, programmed death ligand 1; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; irAE, immune-related adverse event.