Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients with CKD and controls across insulin resistance categories

CharacteristicsPatients with CKDControls
IR (n=23)aNo IR (n=29)IR (n=10)aNo IR (n=75)
Age (yr), mean (SD)64 (10)63 (12)50 (13)49 (13)
Black, n (%)4 (17)11 (38)4 (40)30 (40)
Female, n (%)10 (44)6 (21)6 (60)47 (63)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)33.4 (7.6)30.0 (5.6)28.3 (5.3)29.0 (6.2)
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2), mean (SD)45.6 (6.2)45.6 (11.1)91.5 (18.4)96.5 (16.1)
BUN (mg/dl), mean (SD)24.0 (5.2)24.7 (11.8)12.6 (4.5)12.7 (3.5)
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl), mean (SD)108.7 (14.1)106.5 (12.8)104.5 (9.9)97.7 (10.5)
Plasma sodium (mEq/L), mean (SD)140.3 (2.4)140.7 (1.9)139.7 (1.4)139.1 (2.0)
Serum osmolality (mOsm/kg), mean (SD)294.6 (5.9)295.4 (6.5)288.8 (4.3)287.4 (4.4)
Copeptin (pmol/L), median (IQR)12.2 (8.4–23.1)9.8 (6.9–16.6)4.8 (4.2–7.6)4.4 (3.2–7.3)
Adiponectin (μg/ml), median (IQR)13.0 (7.3–18.6)16.0 (9.6–26.5)10.2 (7.3–16.8)21.4 (10.4–44.9)
Leptin (ng/ml), median (IQR)51.1 (31.0–83.0)20.8 (13.3–34.4)41.1 (22.3–74.0)24.8 (15.1–43.2)
Fasting insulin (μU/ml), median (IQR)25.5 (17.5–31.1)14.8 (9.7–18.7)16.0 (8.2–24.6)8.3 (5.0–11.8)
HOMA-IR index, median (IQR)6.7 (4.3–9.2)3.8 (2.7–4.9)4.0 (2.2–6.0)2.0 (1.2–2.9)
IL6 (pg/ml), median (IQR)2.6 (2.0–4.7)1.9 (1.3–2.7)2.3 (1.5–3.4)1.6 (1.0–2.6)
  • Among patients with CKD, comparisons between those with IR and those with no IR were statistically significant for serum leptin (P=0.0003), HOMA-IR (P=0.002), and fasting insulin (P=0.003). Among controls, these between-group comparisons were also significant for HOMA-IR (P=0.007), fasting insulin (P=0.02), and fasting glucose (P=0.02). IR, insulin resistance; BMI, body mass index; HOMA-IR, homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance.

  • a Insulin resistance defined as insulin sensitivity index less than the 25th percentile (2.6).