Table 3.

Etiology and treatment of hyponatremia for patients with initial serum sodium <115 mEq/L who experienced osmotic demyelination syndrome

ReferenceEtiology of HyponatremiaTreatment of Hyponatremia
Koul et al. (29)Not mentioned by authors, presumably from a vasopressin-mediated process with reduced effective arterial blood volume3% saline till SNa reached 120, then NS given
de Souza et al. (30)Vomiting from colchicine administrationNot mentioned by authors
John et al. (8)SIAD secondary to small cell bronchogenic carcinoma of lungSaline infusion (not specified as 3%), discontinuation of thiazide diuretic
Leens et al. (31)Psychogenic polydipsia, thiazide diuretic useWater restriction, NS with potassium added
Al-Shaibany et al. (32)Watery diarrhea and vomiting3% saline at 150 ml bolus, then NS 50–100 ml/h
Silbert et al. (33)Psychogenic polydipsiaHypertonic saline 2.5% and fluid restriction
Reijnders et al. (34)Thiazide diuretic use and poor intakeDiscontinuation of thiazide diuretic, isotonic saline infusion
Malhotra et al. (35)Excess fluid and low solute intakeFluid restriction
Dellabarca et al. (36)Not mentioned by authors, presumably from low solute intakeIntravenous saline infusion (not specified as 3%), water restriction
Yamada et al. (19)Excess vasopressin stimulated by vomitingContinuous infusion of 3% saline at 25 ml/h
Macmillan et al. (4)Not mentioned by authorsDesmopressin
Dewitt et al. (37)Not mentioned by authorsNot mentioned
  • SNa, serum sodium; NS, 0.9% sodium chloride; SIAD, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis.