Table 1.

Differences in patient characteristics among patients assessed as frail according to the FP, FI, and CFS

VariableFrailty Phenotype Score of ≥3 (n=88, 16%)Frailty Index Score of ≥0.25 (n=183, 34%)Clinical Frailty Scale Score of ≥4 (n=81, 15%)
Demographics
 Age (yr), mean±SD58±1457±1346±12
 Age >65 yr, n (%)36 (41)56 (31)27 (34)
 Male sex, n (%)51 (58)114 (62)46 (57)
 White race, n (%)73 (83)145 (79)62 (77)
Site, n (%)
Atlantic Canada11 (13)32 (17)20 (25)
Hamilton14 (16)32 (17)26 (32)
London60 (68)115 (63)27 (33)
Montreal3 (3)4 (2)8 (10)
Cause of ESKD, n (%)
DM35 (40)74 (40)30 (37)
Vascular/HTN5 (6)11 (6)1 (1)
GN20 (23)40 (26)18 (22)
Congenital12 (14)21 (11)9 (11)
Structural5 (6)10 (5)7 (9)
Other11 (13)27 (15)16 (20)
Dialysis vintage yr, median (IQR)1.2 (0.4–2.2)1.2 (0.2–2.2)2.0 (1.2–2.9)
Dialysis type, n (%)
HD54 (61)107 (58)55 (68)
PD20 (23)46 (25)18 (22)
Pre-emptive13 (15)28 (15)5 (6)
Unknown1 (1)2 (1)3 (4)
Laboratory investigations, mean±SD
Albumin (g/L)37±637±536±6
Hemoglobin (g/L)108±14108±15107±15
Parathyroid hormone (pg/mL)51±5350±4857±54
Comorbidities, n (%)
DM45 (51)99 (54)46 (57)
CAD25 (28)52 (29)22 (27)
CHF28 (32)72 (39)25 (31)
CVD12 (14)23 (13)12 (15)
PVD9 (10)20 (11)8 (10)
Chronic lung disease5 (6)15 (8)10 (12)
Chronic liver disease6 (7)11 (6)8 (10)
Previous malignancy14 (16)27 (15)13 (16)
Previous kidney transplant, n (%)6 (7)18 (10)8 (10)
BMI, n (%)
Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2)2 (2)7 (4)4 (5)
Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2)24 (27)39 (21)16 (20)
Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2)26 (30)56 (31)21 (26)
Obese 1 (30.0–34.9 kg/m2)22 (25)53 (29)23 (28)
Obese 2 (35.0–39.9 kg/m2)12 (14)22 (12)10 (12)
Obese 3 (≥ 40.0 kg/m2)2 (2)6 (3)7 (9)
Karnofsky Performance Scale, n (%)
Fully active20 (23)55 (27)14 (17)
Ambulatory, light work50 (57)110 (54)39 (48)
Ambulatory, self-care9 (10)23 (11)16 (20)
Limited self-care, 50% of time in bed1 (1)3 (1)3 (4)
Disabled1 (1)2 (1)1 (1)
Unknown7 (8)12 (6)8 (10)
Activated to waitlist47 (53)107 (52)39 (48)
  • FP, Frailty Phenotype; FI, frailty index; CFS, Clinical Frailty Scale; DM, diabetes mellitus; HTN, hypertension; IQR, interquartile range; HD, hemodialysis; PD, peritoneal dialysis; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; CVD, cerebrovascular disease; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; BMI, body mass index.