Table 2.

Clinical factors associated with frailty as measured by the Frailty Phenotype, frailty index and Clinical Frailty Scale score

VariableAdjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)
FP (≥3)FI (≥0.25)CFS (≥4)
Age >65 yr2.44 (1.45 to 4.09)1.31 (0.84 to 2.05)1.30 (0.74 to 2.31)
Male sex0.58 (0.35 to 0.95)0.74 (0.49 to 1.01)0.57 (0.33 to 0.96)
DM1.75 (1.07 to 2.86)2.35 (1.59 to 3.47)2.15 (1.26 to 3.67)
CAD1.57 (0.86 to 2.88)1.71 (1.03 to 2.85)1.21 (0.63 to 2.33)
CHF0.98 (0.58 to 1.68)1.96 (1.29 to 2.98)1.03 (0.58 to 1.83)
CVD1.91 (0.87 to 4.20)2.26 (1.10 to 4.64)1.78 (0.80 to 3.98)
PVD0.98 (0.41 to 2.37)1.36 (0.66 to 2.78)0.84 (0.32 to 2.18)
Chronic lung disease0.53 (0.19 to 1.48)0.87 (0.42 to 1.82)1.57 (0.68 to 3.61)
Chronic liver disease1.14 (0.44 to 2.95)1.06 (0.48 to 2.35)2.52 (1.01 to 6.28)
Dialysis vintage >1 year1.26 (0.76 to 2.08)1.32 (0.89 to 1.96)4.67 (2.56 to 8.49)
  • FP, Frailty Phenotype; FI, frailty index; CFS, Clinical Frailty Score; DM, diabetes mellitus; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; CVD, cerebrovascular disease; PVD, peripheral vascular disease.