Table 4.

Patient and center characteristics associated with conversion from a CVC in place at 90 days to a functional AVF at 360 days after hemodialysis initiation

CharacteristicsHR (95% CI)aP Value
Primary center of supervision
 Center 1 (reference)1.00
 Center 20.27 (0.06 to 1.18)0.08
 Center 32.09 (1.04 to 4.18)0.04
 Center 40.25 (0.08 to 0.74)0.01
 Center 50.96 (0.4 to 2.28)0.92
 Center 60.49 (0.14 to 1.76)0.28
 Center 71.08 (0.38 to 3.06)0.89
 Center 80.91 (0.36 to 2.29)0.84
 Center 91.22 (0.5 to 2.94)0.67
 Center 100.73 (0.3 to 1.74)0.47
Age (yr) group
 <60 (reference)1.00
 60–770.78 (0.49 to 1.26)0.31
 >770.43 (0.19 to 0.96)0.04
Primary cause of ESKD
 Diabetic nephropathy (reference)1.00
 Polycystic kidney disease2.11 (0.77 to 5.77)0.15
 GN0.97 (0.38 to 2.43)0.94
 Hypertension0.27 (0.05 to 1.38)0.12
 Other0.53 (0.17 to 1.59)0.25
 Urologic1.16 (0.32 to 4.15)0.82
 Unknown/missing0.67 (0.3 to 1.48)0.32
Comorbidities
 Hypertension1.31 (0.79 to 2.16)0.29
 Diabetes mellitus1.21 (0.61 to 2.39)0.59
 Cerebrovascular disease0.79 (0.3 to 2.07)0.63
 Congestive cardiac failure1.01 (0.5 to 2.02)0.98
 Peripheral vascular disease0.55 (0.16 to 1.88)0.34
 Atherosclerotic cardiac disease0.73 (0.37 to 1.44)0.36
Anthropometric measures
 BMI per 1 kg/m2 increase1.05 (1.02 to 1.08)0.002
Laboratory measures
 Albumin per 1 g/L increase1.04 (0.98 to 1.1)0.23
 Hemoglobin per 1 g/dl increase1.16 (0.96 to 1.39)0.13
 Calcium per 1 mmol/L increase1.17 (0.3 to 4.54)0.82
  • CVC, central venous catheter; AVF, arteriovenous fistula; HR, hazard ratio; BMI, body mass index.

  • a Hazard ratio from sex-stratified Cox model, adjustments were made for dialysis center, demographic and lifestyle characteristics (age group and BMI), comorbid conditions, primary cause of kidney disease, and laboratory indicators. BMI was modeled as a linear variable, there was no evidence of conversion from CVC to AVF in this cohort for underweight participants.