Table 2.

Predictors of recovery of kidney function within 1 year of first date of maintenance dialysis using adjusted Fine and Gray models among patients with HRS, accounting for the competing risk of death

PredictorsHR (95% CI) (n=7830)
Model 1a Model 2b
Age
 18 to <30 yrReferenceReference
 30 to <65 yr0.36 (0.26 to 0.51)0.42 (0.30 to 0.59)
 ≥65 yr0.10 (0.07 to 0.15)0.15 (0.10 to 0.22)
Women (versus men)0.99 (0.87 to 1.14)1.05 (0.92 to 1.21)
Race
 Non-Hispanic WhiteReferenceReference
 Non-Hispanic Black0.64 (0.50 to 0.82)0.68 (0.53 to 0.88)
 Hispanic0.90 (0.74 to 1.10)0.94 (0.77 to 1.15)
 Asian1.01 (0.61 to 1.67)1.14 (0.69 to 1.89)
 Other0.67 (0.42 to 1.06)0.66 (0.42 to 1.04)
Median income in zip code per $10,0001.03 (1.00 to 1.06)1.02 (0.99 to 1.05)
Peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis)0.22 (0.07 to 0.70)0.24 (0.08 to 0.75)
Insured (versus no insurance)1.13 (0.55 to 2.33)1.31 (0.64 to 2.68)
Region of United States
 WestReferenceReference
 Midwest0.78 (0.65 to 0.94)0.77 (0.64 to 0.93)
 South0.79 (0.65 to 0.94)0.81 (0.67 to 0.97)
 East0.65 (0.53 to 0.80)0.67 (0.54 to 0.82)
Comorbid conditions (versus without condition)
 Coronary artery disease1.21 (0.91 to 1.60)
 Malignancy0.73 (0.52 to 1.02)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease0.94 (0.70 to 1.26)
 Heart failure0.80 (0.65 to 0.98)
 Stroke0.77 (0.42 to 1.39)
 Diabetes mellitus0.70 (0.59 to 0.84)
 Hypertension0.88 (0.76 to 1.01)
 Drug dependence1.18 (0.85 to 1.64)
 Peripheral vascular disease0.86 (0.58 to 1.28)
 Smoker1.16 (0.94 to 1.42)
 Alcohol dependence1.40 (1.22 to 1.61)
  • HRS, hepatorenal syndrome; HR, hazard ratio.

  • a Adjusted for age category, sex, race/ethnicity, median neighborhood income, calendar period, initial treatment modality, insurance status, and region of the United States.

  • b Adjusted for age category, sex, race/ethnicity, median neighborhood income, calendar period, initial treatment modality, insurance status, region of the United States, and comorbid conditions (hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, malignancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, drug use, tobacco use [current smokers], and alcohol use).