Table 5.

Relationship between normalized biomarkers and htTKV, overall and by sex

AnalytesPearson Correlation P Value Adjusted for Sexa P Value Testing for Interactionb
All Patients (N=95)Males Only (N=26)Females Only (N=69)
Creatinine (µM)
Osmolality (mmol/kg)
Protein/creatinine ratio0.200.040.24c,d 0.05d 0.66
Protein/osmolality ratio0.190.330.160.070.33
Lactate/creatinine ratio0.
Lactate/osmolality ratio0.>0.99
Pyruvate/creatinine ratio−0.01−0.380.090.970.05
Pyruvate/osmolality ratio−0.01−
Lactate/pyruvate ratio0.
Succinate/creatinine ratio−0.08−0.32−0.020.620.13
Succinate/osmolality ratio0.
cAMP/creatinine ratio−0.11−0.41c,d 0.020.380.09
cAMP/osmolality ratio−0.08−0.05−0.070.530.97
PKM2/creatinine ratio0.28d,e 0.060.36d,e 0.002d 0.66
PKM2/osmolality ratio0.22c,d 0.370.220.02d 0.27
PDK1/creatinine ratio−0.14−0.33−
PDK1/osmolality ratio−0.05−0.04−0.040.710.93
LDHA/creatinine ratio0.23c,d 0.090.29c,d 0.01d 0.97
LDHA/osmolality ratio0.22c,d 0.39c,d 0.220.03d 0.16
  • htTKV, height-adjusted total kidney volume; PKM2, pyruvate kinase M2; PDK1, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1; LDHA, lactate dehydrogenase A.

  • a P value from multivariable regression analysis testing association between each biomarker and htTKV while adjusting for sex.

  • b P value formally testing interaction by sex: significant P value indicates there is evidence that the strength of the relationship between a biomarker and htTKV differs significantly for male versus female patients.

  • c Denotes Pearson correlation with P<0.05.

  • d Denotes significant P value.

  • e Denotes Pearson correlation with P<0.01.