Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients in the different CKD stages

CharacteristicsOverall (n=245)CKD Stage
1 (n=24)2 (n=106)3a (n=47)3b (n=35)4–5 (n=33)
Clinical findings
 Age (yr)42.6±14.127.8±5.738.0±11.546.0±10.853.9±15.251.3±13.4
 Male (%)62.054.255.774.562.969.7
 BMI (kg/m2)23.0±3.721.1±4.322.8±3.823.7±3.1023.9±3.8122.6±3.4
 BSA (m2)1.71±0.201.63±0.181.70±0.201.76±0.191.70±0.221.71±0.22
 Patients with hypertension (%)19.68.318.313.625.733.3
 RAAS inhibitor use (%)45.325.028.355.080.063.6
Laboratory findings
 Serum albumin (g/dl)3.8±0.54.1±0.33.9±0.53.9±0.43.6±0.73.4±0.6
 Serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.19±0.630.67±0.120.84±0.151.13±0.141.50±0.252.45±0.73
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)60.0±25.198.6±27.373.0±10.354.5±7.236.1±6.323.1±6.2
 24-h Ccr (ml/min)83±34119±3599±2485±1851±1437±13
 Serum uric acid (mg/dl)6.5±1.75.1±1.35.9±1.47.0±1.17.7±1.47.9±1.8
 Triglyceride (mg/dl)144±83113±76136±97165±84152±51152±53
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)62±1867±1764±1958±1762±1860±19
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)121±32110±34121±32121±30122±34130±35
 HbA1c (%)5.5±0.55.4±0.75.4±0.45.5±0.45.6±0.65.5±0.4
 IgA (mg/dl)324±106315±107307±91344±106370±140303±95
 C3 (mg/dl)100±1993±17101±16103±20102±2596±16
 Urinary RBC count, grade 1–5 (%)a 77.066.781.087.274.360.6
 UPE (mg/d)835 (433–1536)419 (250–608)633 (423–1129)1066 (432–1392)1037 (610–2333)1983 (1263–3362)
 Patients with UPE ≥1 g/d (%)41.24.228.353.251.481.8
Histopathological findings
 Total glomeruli identified in biopsy specimen23.0±11.025.0±12.426.0±11.421.3±10.419.0±8.518.8±8.7
 Glomeruli with global sclerosis (%)16.9±16.15.4±7.410.7±12.519.2±14.624.1±14.233.8±17.8
 Glomeruli with segmental sclerosis (%)2.8±4.81.1±3.32.2±3.22.2±4.55.2±6.14.0±7.3
 Glomeruli with cellular/fibrocellular crescents (%)10.7±27.67.1±26.211.8±32.77.8±15.39.9±29.414.7±22.1
 Glomeruli with fibrous crescents (%)2.0±6.82.0±6.12.6±7.40.0±0.32.0±4.82.7±10.7
 Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (%)17.8±17.08.1±6.99.6±7.216.2±12.527.5±17.143.0±20.2
 Arteriosclerotic lesionb, grade 1–2 (%)59.016.755.259.677.181.8
 Arteriolar hyalineb, grade 1–3 (%)34.716.730.236.248.645.5
Oxford classification
 Patients with M1 (%)46.545.846.236.248.660.6
 Patients with E1 (%)12.28.313.28.55.724.2
 Patients with S1 (%)89.475.085.895.797.193.9
 Patients with T1+2 (%)24.14.23.819.154.378.8
 Patients with C1+2 (%)38.025.041.538.328.645.5
Morphologic measurements
 Renal parenchymal volume (cm3/kidney)131.9±33.6148.4±29.8142.2±30.6132.5±23.5112.0±28.2106.7±40.4
 Renal cortical volume (cm3/kidney)92.3±23.9104.1±21.199.7±21.792.7±16.778.3±20.074.5±28.7
 Globally sclerotic glomerular density (per mm3)2.5 (1.1–6.1)1.1 (0.0–2.1)1.5 (0.8–4.4)3.3 (1.6–7.2)3.7 (2.0–6.0)5.4 (3.6–9.4)
 Nonglobally sclerotic glomerular density (per mm3)12.5 (8.0–17.0)16.5 (11.2–21.5)15.3 (12.1–18.8)11.8 (7.8–14.2)7.1 (5.8–9.3)6.2 (4.8–10.0)
  • Values are presented as the means±SDs or median (25th–75th percentile). BMI, body mass index; BSA, body surface area; RAAS, renin-angiotensin aldosterone system; Ccr, creatinine clearance rate; IgA, immunoglobulin A; RBC, red blood cell; UPE, urinary protein excretion; M, mesangial hypercellularity; E, endocapillary hypercellularity; S, segmental sclerosis or adhesion; T, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy; C, crescents.

  • a The urinary RBC count was graded as follows: grade 0, <5/high power field (HPF); grade 1, 5–9/HPF; grade 2, 10–19/HPF; grade 3, 20–49/HPF; grade 4, 50–99/HPF; and grade 5, >99/HPF.

  • b Arteriosclerotic lesions were defined as normal (grade 0), and <50% (grade 1) or more than 50% of the thickness of media (grade 2). Arteriolar hyaline was graded as the proportion of arterioles affected (grade 0, <1%; grade 1, 1%–25%; grade 2, 26%–50%; grade 3, >50%).