Table 1.

Baseline demographic characteristics of participants by study group

CharacteristicsSPPBIADLM3SE
HighLowHighLowHighLow
Participants, n (%)a 197 (56)153 (44)246 (70)104 (30)177 (51)173 (49)
Age
 Mean±SD64.1±10.968.5±10.264.9±10.268.9±11.764.1±10.168.1±11.1
  ≥65 yr, n (%)105 (53)99 (65)110 (45)36 (35)90 (51)114 (66)
 <65 yr, n (%)92 (47)54 (35)136 (55)68 (65)87 (49)59 (34)
Sex, n (%)
 Male142 (72)109 (71)168 (68)83 (80)121 (68)130 (75)
 Female55 (28)44 (29)78 (32)21 (20)56 (32)43 (25)
Black, n (%)
 Yes135 (69)108 (71)173 (70)70 (67)109 (62)134 (77)
 No62 (31)45 (29)73 (30)34 (33)68 (38)39 (23)
BMI (kg/m2), mean±SD32.0±7.034.7±7.732.9±7.233.9±7.933.7±7.432.7±7.4
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2), mean±SD47.1±13.942.2±15.246.1±14.842.2±14.145.3±14.344.6±15.1
CKD stage, n (%)
 Stage 2 (60–89 ml/min)35 (18)19 (12)42 (17)12 (12)27 (15)27 (16)
 Stage 3A (45–60 ml/min)73 (37)49 (32)93 (38)29 (28)65 (37)57 (33)
 Stage 3B (30–45 ml/min)71 (36)47 (31)74 (30)44 (42)60 (34)58 (34)
 Stage 4 (15–30 ml/min)13 (7)33 (22)31 (13)15 (14)19 (11)27 (16)
 Stage 5 (<15 ml/min)5 (3)5 (3)6 (2)4 (4)6 (3)4 (2)
Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg), mean±SDb 88.8±12.387.2±14.389.0±12.685.9±14.387.8±12.788.4±13.7
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)c
 Yes98 (50)99 (65)125 (51)72 (69)98 (55)99 (57)
 No99 (50)54 (35)121 (49)32 (31)79 (45)74 (43)
Cancer, n (%)d
 Yes50 (25)27 (18)56 (23)21 (20)43 (24)34 (20)
 No147 (75)126 (82)190 (77)83 (80)134 (76)139 (80)
Diabetes, n (%)
 Yes114 (58)105 (69)154 (63)65 (63)117 (66)102 (59)
 No83 (42)48 (31)92 (37)39 (37)60 (34)71 (41)
Medical alert device, n (%)
 Yes62 (31)46 (30)78 (32)30 (29)50 (28)58 (34)
 No135 (69)107 (70)168 (68)74 (71)127 (72)115 (66)
Education, n (%)
 No high-school diploma23 (12)39 (25)37 (15)25 (24)8 (5)54 (31)
 High school or greater174 (88)114 (75)209 (85)79 (76)169 (95)119 (69)
Income, n (%)e
 ≥$50,00064 (32)30 (20)70 (28)24 (23)69 (39)25 (14)
 <$50,000133 (68)123 (80)176 (72)80 (77)108 (61)148 (86)
  • SPPB, Short Physical Performance Battery; IADL, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; M3SE, Modified Mini-Mental Status Exam; BMI, body mass index.

  • a One participant who did not have an SPPB baseline score was included in the low-performance group on the basis of a later score.

  • b Data were missing from three participants.

  • c Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery disease (heart attack, chest pain, angina), heart failure, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral vascular disease, carotid artery disease, and thoracic or abdominal aneurysm.

  • d One participant who refused to answer was included in the no-cancer group.

  • e The 13 participants who refused to answer were included in the income <$50,000 group.