Table 4.

Independent predictors for AKI in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 versus influenza

VariablesCoronavirus Disease 2019Influenza
Model 1 Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Model 2 Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Model 3 Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Model 1 Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Model 2 Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Model 3 Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Sex
 Female (reference)
 Male1.42 (0.88 to 2.31)1.62 (0.91 to 2.89)1.49 (0.81 to 2.76)1.42 (0.93 to 2.16)1.43 (0.87 to 2.33)1.37 (0.83 to 2.25)
Age at hospital admission1.02a (1.01 to 1.04)0.99 (0.97 to 1.01)1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)1.00 (0.99 to 1.02)1.01 (0.99 to 1.02)
Race/ethnicity
 NHW (reference)
 B2.54a (1.47 to 4.41)2.13b (1.11 to 4.10)3.03a (1.52 to 6.27)2.37a (1.43 to 3.91)1.89 (1.05 to 3.39)1.95b (1.07 to 3.54)
 Hispanic/Other1.21 (0.51 to 2.86)0.84 (0.28 to 2.53)0.84 (0.26 to 2.52)1.29 (0.43 to 3.91)1.49 (0.44 to 5.03)1.44 (0.39 to 4.77)
Diabetes
 No (reference)
 Yes1.53 (0.82 to 2.84)1.39 (0.71 to 2.70)1.01 (0.61 to 1.68)0.97 (0.58 to 1.61)
Hypertension
 No (reference)
 Yes1.11 (0.59 to 2.08)1.26 (0.64 to 2.46)0.70 (0.40 to 1.21)0.69 (0.39 to 1.19)
CHF
 No (reference)
 Yes1.68 (0.79 to 3.59)1.63 (0.73 to 3.61)1.91b (1.08 to 3.37)1.84b (1.04 to 3.29)
CAD
 No (reference)
 Yes0.76 (0.33 to 1.74)0.82 (0.33 to 1.97)0.63 (0.34 to 1.14)0.63 (0.34 to 1.13)
CKD
 No (reference)
 Yes7.03c (3.44 to 14.38)7.84c (3.69 to 17.52)6.51c (3.81 to 11.11)6.66c (3.92 to 11.58)
Mechanical ventilation
 No (reference)
 Yes5.85c (2.30 to 15.63)2.05 (0.76 to 5.58)
ICU transfer
 No (reference)
 Yes1.56 (0.80 to 3.04)1.36 (0.81 to 2.27)
  • NHW, non-Hispanic White; B, Black; CHF, congestive heart failure; CAD, coronary heart disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease.

  • a P<0.01.

  • b P<0.05.

  • c P<0.001.