Table 5.

Independent clinical predictors of proteinuria, hematuria, and pyuria in coronavirus disease 2019 versus influenza

VariablesDipstick ProteinuriaRBCs/HPFWBCs/HPF
Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Virus type
 Influenza (reference)
 COVID-192.31a (1.23 to 4.40)2.33a (1.16 to 4.77)0.94 (0.50 to 1.75)1.27 (0.64 to 2.54)1.32 (0.71 to 2.46)1.78 (0.90 to 3.60)
Diabetes
 No (reference)
 Yes1.09 (0.53 to 2.20)0.55 (0.27 to 1.08)0.52 (0.26 to 1.04)
Hypertension
 No (reference)
 Yes1.87 (0.85 to 4.26)1.54 (0.73 to 3.29)1.07 (0.51 to 2.26)
CHF
 No (reference)
 Yes1.04 (0.48 to 2.29)0.82 (0.38 to 1.75)1.55 (0.74 to 3.30)
CAD
 No (reference)
 Yes0.37a (0.15 to 0.85)0.84 (0.37 to 1.89)1.36 (0.62 to 3.06)
CKD
 No (reference)
 Yes1.00 (0.48 to 2.06)0.86 (0.42 to 1.75)0.79 (0.39 to 1.58)
  • CHF, congestive heart failure; CAD, coronary heart disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease.

  • a P<0.05; Dipstick proteinuria (>2+), RBCs/HPF: >2, WBCs/HPF: >2.