Table 3.

Safety of the virtual reality program, as measured by changes in Simulator Sickness Questionnaire values pre- to postexposure

SymptomatologyExposure OneExposure Two
Pre Virtual Reality, Mean (SD)Post Virtual Reality, Mean (SD)PaPre Virtual Reality, Mean (SD)Post Virtual Reality, Mean (SD)Paa
General discomfort7.70 (10.35)4.28 (7.61)0.165.99 (11.48)3.32 (8.60)0.24
Fatigue5.31 (6.07)1.14 (2.78)0.0023.41 (5.75)2.65 (5.08)0.43
Headache1.52 (3.97)0.38 (1.69)0.270.76 (2.33)0.38 (1.69)0.33
Eye strain2.27 (4.33)2.27 (4.98)1.01.90 (4.17)1.14 (2.78)0.43
Difficulty focusing6.45 (12.28)7.53 (12.62)0.585.38 (11.83)2.15 (6.62)0.27
Salivation increasing0.95 (4.27)0.95 (4.27)0.48 (2.13)0.95 (2.94)0.33
Sweating2.39 (5.25)0.48 (2.13)0.100.95 (2.94)0.95 (4.27)1.0
Nausea8.21 (15.74)1.17 (5.25)0.062.35 (7.22)0.95 (4.27)0.25
Difficulty concentrating5.14 (9.78)0.86 (3.83)0.062.57 (6.27)0.86 (3.83)0.16
Fullness of the head2.78 (7.28)0.70 (3.11)0.191.38 (4.28)0.00 (0.00)0.16
Blurred vision6.45 (12.28)6.45 (12.28)1.03.23 (7.88)3.23 (7.88)1.0
Dizziness w/eyes open2.09 (6.82)1.39 (6.23)0.330.00 (0.00)0.00 (0.00)1.0
Dizziness w/eyes closed1.39 (6.23)1.39 (6.23)0.00 (0.00)0.00 (0.00)1.0
Vertigob2.09 (6.81)0.00 (0.00)0.190.70 (3.11)0.00 (0.00)0.33
Stomach awarenessc2.86 (5.45)0.95 (2.94)0.100.48 (2.13)0.00 (0.00)0.33
Burping1.91 (4.99)0.00 (0.00)0.100.48 (2.13)0.00 (0.00)0.33
Subscales and total score
 Nausea18.60 (30.71)5.72 (8.42)0.048.12 (12.49)5.25 (15.31)0.37
 Oculomotor19.33 (25.38)10.99 (13.35)0.0312.89 (20.44)7.96 (14.85)0.18
 Disorientation21.58 (44.36)13.22 (26.13)0.109.05 (15.16)4.87 (11.31)0.21
 Total Symptom Score22.63 (34.71)11.22 (15.16)0.0311.97 (17.61)7.29 (15.28)0.18
  • a Results of paired sample t tests between pre- and postexposure, P values <0.05, and associated exposure values displayed in bold.

  • b Vertigo is experienced as loss of orientation with respect to vertical upright.

  • c Stomach awareness is usually used to indicate a feeling of discomfort that is just short of nausea.