Table 5.

Virtual reality assessments stratified by sex, age, and previous virtual reality experience

Individual-level CharacteristicsSimulator Sickness QuestionnaireiGroup Presence QuestionnaireSystem Usability Scale Postintervention Mean (SD)
Exposure One Δμ (SD)Exposure Two Δμ (SD)Exposure One Mean (SD)Exposure Two Mean (SD)
Sex
 Male−8.64 (21.06)−4.91 (11.96)4.31 (1.11)3.94 (1.14)82.81 (22.89)
 Female−22.44 (21.81)−3.74 (27.14)3.43 (1.39)3.92 (1.39)82.50 (20.10)
P value0.560.900.190.990.98
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White−7.48 (9.38)−2.34 (14.27)4.36 (1.10)3.73 (1.14)90.31 (13.66)
 Black−14.03 (26.74)−6.23 (16.13)3.98 (1.26)4.07 (1.19)77.71 (25.24)
P value0.520.580.500.530.22
Age
 <55−16.21 (27.55)−6.23 (16.09)3.67 (1.45)3.75 (1.48)83.89 (17.90)
 ≥55−7.48 (14.96)−3.40 (15.0)4.51 (0.81)4.01 (0.85)81.82 (25.47)
P value0.380.690.120.540.84
Previous VR experience
 Yes−16.83 (32.15)−5.61 (16.00)3.80 (0.87)3.83 (0.76)83.33 (21.72)
 No−9.08 (15.85)−4.27 (15.38)4.28 (1.30)4.0 (1.31)82.50 (22.72)
P value0.470.860.420.800.94
  • Δμ, mean change before versus after virtual reality exposure; VR, virtual reality.