Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients included in the cohort (n=121)

CharacteristicResult
Age, yr, median (xxx)61 (25–88)
Gender, % (n)
 Female36 (44)
 Male64 (77)
Race, % (n)
 White62 (75)
 Black31 (37)
 Hispanic4 (5)
 Unknown3 (4)
Primary etiology of AKI, % (n)
 Ischemic ATI59 (71)
 Toxic ATI6 (7)
 Ischemic/toxic ATI9 (11)
 Hepatorenal syndrome13 (16)
 Acute GN5 (6)
 Prerenal azotemia3 (4)
 Interstitial nephritis2 (2)
 Cardiorenal syndrome<1 (1)
 Obstructive nephropathy<1 (1)
 Other2 (2)
Secondary etiology of AKI, % (n)
 Ischemic ATI8 (1)
 Toxic ATI8 (1)
 Hepatorenal syndrome54 (7)
 Obstructive nephropathy23 (3)
 Other8 (1)
Preexisting CKD stages 3A to 5a, % (n)35 (43)
Baseline serum creatinine, mg/dl, median (range)
 AKI on CKD1.5 (0.9–4.3)
 de novo AKI (no preexisting CKD)0.9 (0.6–1.7)
 Serum creatinine at first urine microscopy (mg/dl)3.3 (0.8–12.0)
AKI KDIGO stage at first urine microscopy (%)
 Stage 220
 Stage 380
  • ATI, acute tubular injury; KDIGO, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes.

  • a CKD status was determined by baseline eGFR before AKI. Patients without baseline EGFR data were considered de novo AKI.