Table 2.

Association between niacinamide use group and primary and secondary end points in the entire cohort and among KDIGO subgroups

End PointNon-B3 (n=111)B3 (n=90)P
RRT or death, n (%)62 (56)38 (42)
 Unadjusted HR (95% CI)Ref0.62 (0.42 to 0.94)0.02
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)aRef0.64 (0.40 to 1.00)0.05
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)
  In patients with KDIGO stage-1 AKIbRef0.88 (0.51 to 1.53)0.66
  In patients with KDIGO stage-2/3 AKIcRef0.29 (0.13 to 0.65)0.003
  KDIGO interaction0.03
Death alone, n (%)49 (44.1)22 (24.4)
 Unadjusted HR (95% CI)Ref0.45 (0.27 to 0.74)0.002
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)aRef0.59 (0.33 to 1.05)0.07
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)
  In patients with KDIGO stage-1 AKIbRef1.06 (0.53 to 2.11)0.87
  In patients with KDIGO stage-2/3 AKIcRef0.17 (0.05 to 0.52)0.002
  KDIGO interaction0.008
RRT alone, n (%)23 (21)23 (26)
 Unadjusted HR (95% CI)Ref1.11 (0.62 to 1.99)0.72
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)aRef1.02 (0.52 to 2.02)0.95
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)Ref
  In patients with KDIGO stage-1 AKIbRef1.09 (0.46 to 2.78)0.84
  In patients with KDIGO stage-2/3 AKIcRef0.73 (0.25 to 2.16)0.57
  KDIGO interaction0.56
  • Non-B3, individuals not receiving niacinamide; B3, individuals receiving niacinamide; HR, hazard ratio; KDIGO, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes.

  • a Model adjusted for age; sex; history of diabetes, hypertension, malignancy, and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; hemoglobin, leukocyte count, platelet count, serum creatinine, potassium, and bicarbonate on the day of eligibility; preadmission use of hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl–CoA reductase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers; and requirement of the intensive care unit on day of eligibility. N=109 in the non-B3 group; N=90 in the B3 group.

  • b Model adjusted for the same variables as above. N=83 in the non-B3 group; N=68 in the B3 group.

  • c Model adjusted for the same variables as above. N=26 in the non-B3 group; N=21 in the B3 group.