Table 1.

Baseline characteristics by lowest versus highest quartiles of dietary scores, HCHS/SOL (2008–2011) (n=9921)

Baseline CharacteristicsAHEI-2010aDASHbMeDSc
Q1: 28–43Q4: 55–77Q1: 1–29Q4: 45–76Q1: 0–3Q4: 7–9
N248124812480248119932076
Age (yr)35.80 (0.35)d49.15 (0.60)d39.61 (0.42)d43.67 (0.60)d38.30 (0.49)d45.74 (0.57)d
Female sex, %60d40d48d62d5254
Hispanic/Latino background, %
 Central American8d5d8d7d5d8d
 Cuban32d4d25d13d22d8d
 Dominican5d10d5d13d9d4d
 Mexican12d74d29d51d12d70d
 Puerto Rican32d2d23d9d44d0.91d
 South American6d3d542d7d
 More than one/other heritage43536d2d
Less than high school diploma, %27d40d28d37d30d41d
Marital status, %
 Single48d16d40d27d48d18d
 Married or living with a partner38d67d46d55d38d65d
 Separated/divorced/widow(er)141714181517
Household income ≤$20,000, %46d38d46464340
Having health insurance, %5452505165d43d
Acculturation score2.14 (0.08)d1.78 (0.05)d2.12 (0.07)d1.67 (0.05)d2.54 (0.08)d1.58 (0.05)d
Years lived in the United States19.50 (0.57)d22.80 (0.54)d21.22 (0.56)19.53 (0.49)23.78 (0.62)d19.67 (0.55)d
Current smokers, %27d13d28d12d29d13d
Low physical activity level, %444144424341
Body mass index (kg/m2)29.42 (0.19)29.23 (0.17)29.58 (0.19)29.42 (0.18)29.86 (0.23)29.45 (0.16)
Medical conditions, %
 Diabetes9d25d12d19d11d20d
 Hypertension16d29d21242123
 CVD19d29d21252324
ACEI/ARB use, %6d12d81079
Hemoglobin A1C (%)5.56 (0.02)d6.03 (0.04)d5.66 (0.03)d5.84 (0.04)d5.63 (0.03)d5.92 (0.05)d
Systolic BP (mm Hg)116.51 (0.40)d122.83 (0.49)d119.61 (0.42)119.71 (0.53)119.37 (0.51)120.28 (0.55)
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)71.79 (0.30)71.91 (0.35)72.43 (0.34)71.30 (0.33)73.01 (0.35)d71.26 (0.32)d
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)186.44 (1.16)d202.34 (1.44)d192.36 (1.13)196.17 (1.41)190.69 (1.36)d201.54 (1.48)d
Triglycerides (mg/dl)123.14 (3.19)d146.74 (3.01)d131.45 (3.96)134.70 (2.77)127.70 (4.24)d144.58 (3.06)d
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)109.87 (0.50)d102.45 (0.75)d107.50 (0.57)106.26 (0.67)106.95 (0.65)105.76 (0.75)
UACR (mg/g)17.47 (1.44)d30.39 (4.99)d18.67 (1.73)28.29 (3.85)20.58 (2.62)30.07 (4.70)
Mean dietary scores by income level, mean (SEM)
n (%)AHEI-2010DASHMeDS
Income levels
 Income ≤$20,0004334 (43)47.10 (0.20)36.02 (0.25)4.69 (0.05)
 Income $20,001–$40,0003146 (30)48.20 (0.23)36.49 (0.25)4.87 (0.05)
 Income $40,001–$75,0001239 (13)48.45 (0.33)35.26 (0.41)4.61 (0.07)
 Income >$75,000410 (5)49.77 (0.54)34.99 (0.67)4.72 (0.13)
 Missing792 (9)44.95 (0.38)35.72 (0.46)4.35 (0.09)
 All9921 (100)47.55 (0.17)35.99 (0.16)4.71 (0.03)
  • All data shown as weighted percentage or mean (SEM). AHEI-2010, DASH, and MeDS scores were categorized into quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). Q1 is the lowest quartile (unhealthiest diet) and Q4 is the highest quartile (healthiest diet). HCHS/SOL, Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos; AHEI-2010, Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; MeDS, Mediterranean Diet score; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; UACR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio.

  • a AHEI-2010 is based on intake of 11 of the following food components: vegetable and fruit, whole grains, sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juices, nuts and legumes, red/processed meat, trans fat, long-chain fats, polyunsaturated fats, sodium, and alcohol. Each component score ranges from zero to ten, and overall AHEI-2010 score ranges from zero (worst) to 110 (best).

  • b DASH is based on the intake of eight food components: grains, vegetables, fruit, dairy, and nuts/seeds/legumes, red/processed meat, fats/oils, and sweets. Each component score ranges from zero to ten, and overall DASH score ranges from zero (worst) to 80 (best).

  • c MeDS is derived from nine food components: fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts/legumes, meat, fish, dairy, alcohol, and monounsaturated-saturated fat ratio. Each food component is assigned zero or one depending on if an individual meets sex-specific median level of a healthy consumption. Overall MeDS score ranges from zero (worst) to nine (best).

  • d Denotes significant differences by first and fourth quartiles.