Table 2.

Etiology of hypomagnesemia

EtiologyCauses and Consequences
Dietary deficiency of magnesiumStarvation, protein-calorie malnutrition, total parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding with inadequate magnesium
Magnesium redistributionBlood transfusions, acute pancreatitis, refeeding syndrome
Gastrointestinal lossesDiarrhea, vomiting, nasogastric suction, malabsorption, gastrointestinal fistulae, bowel resection, drug related (e.g., PPIs, laxative abuse)
Kidney lossesKetoacidosis, hypercalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, hypervitaminosis D, chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., cisplatin, cetuximab), nonchemotherapy drugs (e.g., diuretics)
Transdermal lossesBurns, excess sweating
  • PPI, proton-pump inhibitor.