Table 2.

Kidney biomarker measurements stratified by presence or absence of AKI

BiomarkernAKI (n=54)nNo AKI (n=52)P Value
Serum NGAL (ng/ml)
 Time 154487 (342–1317)52163 (115–213)<0.001
 Time 229441 (290–705)7153 (118–185)0.001
 Time 322233 (178–360)
Urinary NGAL/Ucr (ng/mg Cr)
 Time 1471305 (304–6068)5232 (9–85)<0.001
 Time 226791 (301–2436)762 (29–82)0.001
 Time 32072 (30–498)
Serum cystatin C (ng/ml)
 Time 1542122 (1189–2978)52712 (576–842)<0.001
 Time 2291506 (1111–2258)7833 (623–974)0.001
 Time 3211299 (908–2387)
Urinary cystatin C/Ucr (ng/mg Cr)
 Time 147785 (125–1561)5248 (9–166)<0.001
 Time 226652 (182–1462)763 (17–128)0.003
 Time 31968 (44–325)
Urinary KIM-1/Ucr (ng/mg Cr)
 Time 1475.7 (3.3–13.9)522.3 (1.2–4.4)<0.001
 Time 2475.2 (3.1–8.1)74.1 (0.9–5.4)0.31
 Time 3202.3 (1.7–4.3)
  • Time 1: 24–48 h after AKI diagnosis (patients) or intensive care unit admission (controls). Time 2: 5–7 d after time 1 collection. Time 3: 4–6 wk after discharge if patient survived and followed up with clinic visit. NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; Ucr, urinary creatinine; Cr, creatinine; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1.