Table 2.

Summary of studies reporting AKI and outcomes in patients with COVID-19

Study (Reference)Patients, nSampleBlack, n (%)Hispanic, n (%)CKD, n (%)AKI, n (%)AKI-RRT, n (%)Mortality, n (%)Geographic Location
Chen et al. (24)113 deceased and 161 recoveredHospitalized004 (1)28 (25) versus 1 (1)3 (1)113 (41.2)China
Cheng et al. (3)701Hospitalized0014 (2)36 (5.1)NA113 (16.1)China
Deng et al. (25)109 deceased and 116 recoveredHospitalized00NA20 (18.3) versus 0NA109 (49)China
Guan et al. (4)1099Hospitalized and outpatients008 (0.7)6 (0.5)NA15 (1.4)China
Guo et al. (5)187Hospitalized006 (3.2)18 (14.6)NA43 (23)China
Huang et al. (6)41Hospitalized00NA3 (7)3 (7)6 (15)China
Lei et al. (7)34Underwent elective surgery before diagnosis001 (2.9)2 (5.9)1 (2.9)7 (20.6)China
Pei et al. (8)333Hospitalized00035 (10.5)NA29 (8.7)China
Shi et al. (9)416Hospitalized0014 (3.4)8 (1.9)2 (0.5)57 (13.7)China
Wang et al. (26)107Hospitalized003 (2.8)14 (13.1)NA19 (17.7)China
Wang et al. (10)138Hospitalized004 (2.9)5 (3.6)2 (1.45%)6 (4.3)China
Wang et al. (2)116Hospitalized005 (4.3)0 (0)0 (0)7 (6)China
Xu et al. (27)239ICU00NA119 (50)12 (5)147 (61.5)China
Yang et al. (28)52ICU00NA15 (29)9 (17)32 (51.5)China
Zhang et al. (11)221Hospitalized006 (2.7)10 (4.5)5 (2.3)12 (5.4)China
Zhang et al. (12)140Hospitalized002 (1.4)NANANAChina
Zhang et al. (13)645Hospitalized006 (0.9)2 (0.3)0NAChina
Zhou et al. (14)191Hospitalized002 (1)27 (14)10 (5)54 (28.3)China
Aggarwal et al. (15)16Hospitalized006 (38)11 (69)NA3 (19)Iowa
Arentz et al. (29)21ICUNANA10 (47.6)4 (19.1)NA11 (52.4)Washington State
Argenziano et al. (16)1000 (850 hospitalized)ED or hospitalized181 (18.1)248 (24.8)137 (13.7)288/850 (33.9)117/850 (13.8)211 (21.1)New York
Fisher et al. (17)3345Hospitalized1201 (35.9)1247 (37.3)409 (12.2)1903 (56.9)164 (4.9)775 (23.2)New York
Gupta et al. (30)3099ICU952 (30.7)1045 (33.7)897 (28.9)1685 (54.4%)637 (20.6)350/637 (54.9) of AKI-RRTUnited States, multicenter
Hirsch et al. (18)5449Hospitalized1123 (20.6)1145 (21)NA1993 (36.6)285 (5.2)888 (16.3)New York
Imam et al. (31)1305Hospitalized862 (66.1)NA228 (17.5)76 (5.85)aNA200 (15.3)Michigan
Mohamed et al. (19)575Hospitalized414 (72)9 (1.57)172 (29.9)161 (28)89 (15.5)80/161 (50) (AKI cohort)New Orleans, Louisiana
Pelayo et al. (20)223Hospitalized152 (68)14 (6)39 (17)110 (49)9 (4)44 (19)Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Price-Haywood et al. (21)3481Hospitalized and outpatient2451 (70.4)0278 (8)197 (14.25)bNA326 (23.6)bLouisiana
Richardson et al. (22)5700 total, 2634 discharged or diedHospitalized1230 (23)1230 (23)186 (3.5)523/2634 (20)81/2634 (3.2)553/2634 (21)New York
Grasselli et al. (88)1591ICUNANA36 (3)NANA405 (26)Italy
Lim et al. (89)164Hospitalized00Excluded30 (18.3)5 (3)44 (164)South Korea
Kidney transplant recipients
 Akalin et al. (86)36Confirmed COVID14 (39)15 (42)NANA6 (21)10 (28)New York
 Alberici et al. (87)20Hospitalized, confirmed COVIDNANANA6 (30)1 (5)5 (25)Italy
 Banerjee et al. (90)7Confirmed COVIDNANANANANA1 (14)London
 Columbia transplant program (85)15Confirmed COVIDNANANA6 (40)2 (13)2 (13)New York
 Husain et al. (84)41Confirmed or suspected COVIDNANANANANA0New York
 Maritati et al. (91)5Hospitalized, confirmed COVIDNANANA1 (20)02 (60)Italy
 Nair et al. (39)10Confirmed COVID3 (30)NANA5 (50)NA3 (30)New York
  • Note that references 18,22 come from the same institution and the cohorts overlap. ICU, intensive care unit; ED, emergency department.

  • a Only looked at first 48 h.

  • b Hospitalized only.