Table 2.

AKI patient outcomes and admission and peak laboratory values

OutcomesOverall (N=224)In HospitalP Value
Survivors at 60 d (N=75)aNonsurvivors at 60 d (N=149)b
ICU LOS (d), median (IQR)11 (6–18)14 (8–26)9 (6–15)<0.001c
Hospital LOS (d), median (IQR)16 (9–28)29 (17–42)12 (7–20)<0.001c
RRT (n=114), n (%)114 (51)34 (30)80 (70)0.26
RRT (d), median (IQR)7 (4–16)17.5 (8–26)5 (3–10)<0.001c
First RRT modality (n=114), n (%)0.62 (omnibus)
 CVVHD33 (29)11 (33)22 (67)
 IHD52 (46)13 (25)39 (75)
 PD15 (13)6 (40)9 (60)
 SLED/SCUF14 (12)4 (29)10 (72)
Diuretics, n (%)187 (83)63 (84)124 (83)>0.99
Steroids, n (%)131 (58)46 (61)85 (57)0.57
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)218 (97)72 (96)146 (98)0.41
Days on ventilator, median (IQR)10 (6–18)11 (7.5–22.5)9 (6–16)0.02c
ARDS, n (%)0.04 (omnibus)c
 None5 (2)3 (4)2 (1)
 Mild4 (2)3 (4)1 (1)
 Moderate82 (37)32 (43)50 (34)
 Severe133 (59)37 (49)96 (64)
Vasopressors, n (%)190 (85)53 (71)137 (92)<0.001 (omnibus)c
 NE185 (83)53 (60)132 (98)
 Vasopressin106 (47)17 (23)89 (60)
 Phenylephrine76 (34)17 (23)59 (40)
 Epinephrine26 (12)4 (5)22 (15)
AKI at admission (day 1), n (%)113 (50)35 (46)78 (52)0.48
AKI postadmission, n (%)111 (50)40 (53)71 (48)0.42
 Day 224 (11)6 (8)18 (12)
 Day 323 (10)7 (9)16 (11)
 Day 415 (7)8 (11)7 (5)
 Day 513 (6)4 (5)9 (6)
 Day 615 (7)6 (8)9 (6)
 Day 74 (2)1 (1)3 (2)
 >7 Days17 (8)8 (11)9 (6)
Peak AKI stage, n (%)0.35 (omnibus)
 149 (22)19 (25)30 (20)
 235 (16)14 (19)21 (14)
 3140 (63)42 (56)98 (66)
Liberation from RRT (n=114), n (%)d36 (32)25 (69)11 (31)<0.001c
Admission laboratory tests
 Creatinine (mg/dl), median (IQR)1.27 (0.9–1.7)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.3 (0.9–1.7)0.04c
 WBC (k/μl), median (IQR)8.7 (6.1–12.0)9.3 (5.8–13.1)8.6 (6.2–11.0)0.55
 Lymphocyte (%), median (IQR)11 (8.0–17.0)12.0 (8.0–18.0)11.0 (8.0–15.0)0.32
 Hemoglobin (g/dl), median (IQR)13.5 (11.7–14.6)13.0 (11.1–14.3)13.6 (12.1–14.9)0.03c
 Platelet (k/μl), median (IQR)209 (157–259)214.5 (164.0–269.0)204.0 (155.0–257.0)0.63
 BUN (mg/dl), median (IQR)22.0 (14.0–33.5)19.0 (12.0–35.0)22.0 (15.0–33.0)0.39
 Na (mEq/L), median (IQR)136.0 (133.0–139.0)137.0 (133.0–140.0)136.0 (133.0–139.0)0.12
 K (mEq/L), median (IQR)4.4 (4–4.8)4.3 (3.9–4.6)4.5 (4.0–4.8)0.11
 Troponin (ng/ml), median (IQR)0.01 (0.01–0.04)0.01 (0.01–0.03)0.01 (0.01–0.04)0.29
 Hematuria (≥3 RBCs/HPF), n (%)121 (54)40 (60)81 (60)>0.99
 Proteinuria, n (%)0.48
  Normal/trace (up to 30 mg/dl)34 (17)13 (11)21 (22)
  1+ (30–100 mg/dl)53 (26)19 (18)34 (35)
  2+ (100–300 mg/dl)78 (38)27 (26)51 (52)
  3+ (300–1000 mg/dl)35 (17)8 (12)27 (23)
  4+ (>1000 mg/dl)5 (2)1 (2)4 (3)
 Urine Na (mEq/L), median (IQR)24.5 (20.0–51.0)28.0 (20.0–56.0)23.0 (20.0–49.0)0.40
 BUN/Cr ratio, median (IQR)16.7 (13.25–20.75)16.8 (13.1–22.5)16.7 (13.4–20.4)0.94
Peak laboratory values, median (IQR)e
 BUN (mg/dl)104.0 (61.0–140.0)106.0 (56.0–140.0)103.5 (63.0–142.5)0.37
 Creatinine (mg/dl)5.5 (2.95–8.56)3.8 (1.8–8.5)6.2 (3.9–8.6)0.007c
 Phosphate (mg/dl)8 (5.5–11.1)7.1 (4.9–10.9)8.3 (5.8–11.8)0.05c
 Magnesium (mg/dl)3.0 (2.1–4.4)3.0 (2.6–3.3)3.0 (2.7–3.4)0.82
 Lactate (mmol/L)3.05 (2.2–4.65)2.6 (1.9–3.5)3.4 (2.3–5.6)<0.001c
 Procalcitonin (ng/ml)4.6 (1.5–15.7)2.6 (0.9–11.1)6.0 (2.1–21.8)0.01c
 Ferritin (ng/ml)1894.0 (1141.5–3581.0)1835.0 (930.0–3852.0)1909.0 (1154.0–3568.0)0.96
 LDH (U/L)747.5 (570.0–993.0)701.5 (601.0–922.0)770.0 (567.0–1005.0)0.45
 CRP (mg/dl)31.8 (20.7–41.5)23.4 (16.1–36.5)33.8 (23.9–44.3)0.001c
d-Dimer (μg/ml)14.85 (6.84–20.0)12.1 (6.8–20.0)17.6 (6.8–20.0)0.16
 Fibrinogen (mg/dl)748.5 (629.0–895.0)763.5 (659.5–924.0)729.5 (579.5–875.0)0.11
 CPK (U/L)733.0 (242.0–2273.0)1162.0 (220.0–2466.0)655.0 (261.0–1996.0)0.23
 Troponin (ng/ml)0.06 (0.01–0.25)0.06 (0.01–0.23)0.06 (0.01–0.25)0.70
 Pro-BNP (pg/ml)800.5 (230.0–3758.0)715.0 (230.0–4455.0)845.0 (234.0–3479.0)0.95
 AST (U/L)113 (70–235)92.0 (63.0–214.0)118.0 (74.5–241.5)0.12
 ALT (U/L)78 (42–157)93.0 (41.0–161.0)70.5 (43.5–133.0)0.17
 Bilirubin (mg/dl)0.9 (0.5–2.0)0.8 (0.5–1.9)1.0 (0.6–2.0)0.17
 Creatinine before initiation of RRT (mg/dl)7.05 (5.2–8.8)7.07 (4.87–9.3)7.05 (5.48–8.3)0.86
  • ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of stay; IQR, interquartile range; CVVHD, continuous venovenous hemodialysis; IHD, intermittent hemodialysis; PD, peritoneal dialysis; SLED, sustained low-efficiency dialysis; SCUF, slow continuous ultrafiltration; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; WBC, white blood count; Na, sodium; K, potassium; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; CRP, C-reactive protein; CPK, creatine phosphokinase; Pro-BNP, N-type probrain natriuretic peptide; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase.

  • a Patients discharged alive or alive in hospital with censorship at end of 60-d follow-up period.

  • b In-hospital death at the end of 60-d follow-up period.

  • c P<0.05.

  • d Patients whose native kidney function improved such that they were able to be weaned off of RRT completely and no longer required it for clearance or volume removal.

  • e Peak laboratory values measured during entire hospitalization.