Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicAll (N=97)Females (N=70)Males (N=27)P Value
Demographics
 Age (yr), mean (SD)41.9±10.243.3±10.138.5±9.70.04
 Race, n (%)0.15
  American Indian/Alaska Native1 (1)1 (1)0 (0)
  Asian3 (3)1 (1)2 (7)
  Black1 (1)0 (0)1 (4)
  White92 (95)68 (97)24 (89)
 Hispanic ethnicity, n (%)8 (8)3 (4)5 (19)0.04
 Participated in any clinical trial in the past25 (26)20 (29)5 (19)0.3
PKD history
 Age at PKD diagnosis (yr), mean (SD)29.9±11.929.8±11.330.3±13.40.9
 Basis of PKD diagnosis, n (%)0.5
  Screening (family history)27 (28)20 (29)7 (26)
  Incidental imaging21 (22)16 (23)5 (19)
  Pain23 (24)17 (24)6 (22)
  Hypertension9 (9)5 (7)4 (15)
  Routine physical6 (6)3 (4)3 (11)
  Hematuria5 (5)3 (4)2 (7)
  UTI6 (6)6 (9)0 (0)
 Family history of ADPKD, n (%)72 (74)52 (74)20 (74)0.98
 Liver cysts, n (%)53 (55)41 (59)12 (44)0.2
 Gross hematuria, n (%)32 (33)25 (36)7 (26)0.4
 Kidney stones, n (%)21 (22)16 (23)5 (19)0.6
 Abdominal hernia, n (%)20 (21)13 (19)7 (26)0.4
 Upper urinary tract infection, n (%)42 (43)38 (54)4 (15)0.001
 Prior interventional treatment of cysts, n (%)9 (9)8 (11)1 (4)0.4
ADPKD severity and risk class
 eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) , mean (SD)86.8±19.086.9±19.386.7±18.70.96
 eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, n (%)11 (11)9 (13)2 (7)0.7
 Serum CO2 (mEq/L) , mean (SD)26.9±2.326.7±2.427.5±1.90.15
 Systolic BP (mm Hg) , mean (SD)123.1±13.0120.8±13.3129.2±10.10.004
 Diastolic BP (mm Hg) , mean (SD)75.7±8.774.1±8.9380.0±6.610.002
 Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD)26.8±5.226.6±5.627.3±3.90.5
 Treatment with antihypertensive medications, n (%)62 (64)43 (61)19 (70)0.4
 Total kidney volume (ml), median (IQR)a1022.3 (569.2–1489.9)908.9 (527.8–1403.3)1281.2 (922.2–1602.2)0.02
 Height-adjusted TKV (ml/m), median (IQR)a609.8 (341.9–876.5)542.6 (314.1–877.1)692.5 (506.7–876.0)0.09
 Total kidney cyst volume (ml), median (IQR)a552.9 (179.0–876.5)470.5 (175.8–829.5)731.9 (292.3–1032.7)0.15
 Total liver volume (ml), median (IQR)a1794.5 (1540.6–2119.8)1723.3 (1481.0–2150.9)1894.9 (1672.2–2081.6)0.2
 Height-adjusted TLV (ml/m), median (IQR)a1039.3 (885.3–1241.1)1025.8 (869.8–1309.5)1052.7 (949.6–1129.9)0.8
 Liver cyst volume (ml), median (IQR)a11.7 (1.2–304.7)12.2 (1.3–458.1)10.3 (0.6–96.5)0.3
 Mayo risk class, n (%)a0.01
  Class II7 (7)7 (10)0 (0)
  Class IA15 (16)11 (16)4 (15)
  Class IB28 (29)25 (36)3 (11)
  Class IC26 (27)16 (23)10 (37)
  Class ID12 (12)7 (10)5 (19)
  Class IE8 (8)3 (4)5 (19)
  • Continuous variables reported as mean±SD, median (IQR), and tested between females/males using t tests or Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests, as appropriate. Categoric variables reported as n (%) and tested between groups using chi-squared tests or Fischer exact tests. PKD, polycystic kidney disease; UTI, urinary tract infection; ADPKD, autosomal dominant PKD; CO2, carbon dioxide; IQR, interquartile range; TKV, total kidney volume; TLV, total liver volume.

  • a Information on TKVs, kidney cyst volumes, TLVs, liver cyst volumes, and Mayo risk class were missing for N=1 participant. All other measures were complete for all participants.