Table 4.

Effect of clinical variable and comorbidity on ceiling of care or ICU

VariableCeiling of CareICU Admission
All (n=143)Ward (n=73)NIV (n=24)Mechanical Ventilation (n=46)P ValueNo. (n=207)Yes (n=11)Missing (n=6)P Value
Sex
 Male84 (59%)46 (63%)9 (38%)29 (63%)0.07121 (58%)8 (73%)4 (67%)0.35
 Female59 (41%)27 (37%)15 (63%)17 (37%)86 (42%)3 (27%)2 (33%)
Ethnicity (binary)
 White58 (38%)28 (38%)13 (54%)17 (37%)0.3378 (38%)5 (45%)2 (33%)0.61
  Other85 (62%)45 (62%)11 (46%)29 (63%)129 (62%)6 (55%)4 (67%)
Smoking history
 Never53 (37%)23 (32%)11 (46%)19 (41%)0.2886 (42%)4 (36%)4 (67%)0.72
 Some49 (34%)28 (38%)10 (42%)11 (14%)66 (32%)4 (36%)1 (17%)
 Missing41 (29%)22 (30%)3 (13%)16 (35%)55 (27%)3 (27%)1 (17%)
Age at admission (5-yr effect) (yr)
 Mean (SD)66.8 (14.5)74.8 (8.9)65.9 (12.0)54.6 (14.3)<0.00166.7 (14.0)49.9 (12.5)4 (67%)0.0004
 Median (Q1–Q3)70 (59–78)77 (70–81)67 (57–72.5)57 (44–62)68 (58–77)53 (40–61)2 (33%)
 Range25–9037–9033–8725–8526–9025–63
BMI (kg/m2)
 Mean (SD)27.6 (7.7)25.8 (4.9)28.1 (8.9)30.6 (9.8)0.1328.5 (7.6)31.7 (9.9)0.30
 Median (Q1–Q3)25.9 (22.3–30.1)25.8 (21.4–29.6)25.3 (22.6–29.0)27.8 (23.2–36.5)26.2 (23.1–30.7)29.9 (24.9–35.4)
 Range16.5–57.816.7–38.216.5–51.718.4–52.716.5–57.821.0–49.2
 Missing21 (15%)9 (12%)9 (13%)9 (20%)21 (10%)5 (46%)
WHO performance status (binary)
 0–276 (53%)22 (30%)17 (71%)37 (80%)<0.001120 (58%)8 (73%)6 (100%)0.40
 3–466 (46%)51 (70%)7 (29%)8 (17%)80 (39%)3 (27%)0 (0%)
 Missing1 (0.7%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (2%)7 (3%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Neut:lymp ratio (Original scale)
 Mean (SD)8.08 (9.59)7.39 (6.89)8.81 (6.28)8.82 (13.91)0.236.31 (5.86)18.46 (25.54)0.0006
 Median (Q1–Q3)5.30 (3.50–8.53)5.13 (3.08–8.44)7.22 (4.20–11.50)4.91 (3.50–8.53)4.60 (2.92–7.31)8.53 (6.23–18.19)
 Range0.93–930.93–33.671.91–26.751.25–930.74–33.674.33–93
 Missing0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)11 (5%)0 (0%)
History of cancer
 No121 (85%)62 (85%)19 (79%)40 (87%)0.69176 (85%)10 (91%)3 (50%)>0.99
 Yes22 (15%)11 (15%)5 (21%)6 (13%)29 (14%)1 (10%)3 (50%)
 Missing0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)2 (1%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Hypertension
 No27 (19%)10 (14%)6 (25%)11 (24%)0.2737 (18%)3 (27%)1 (17%)0.43
 Yes116 (81%)63 (86%)18 (75%)35 (76%)169 (82%)8 (73%)5 (83%)
 Missing0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (0.50%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Diabetes
 No72 (50%)32 (44%)13 (54%)27 (59%)0.2691 (44%)10 (91%)2 (33%)0.003
 Yes71 (50%)41 (56%)11 (46%)19 (41%)115 (56%)1 (9%)4 (67%)
 Missing0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (0.50%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
HFrEF
 No118 (83%)54 (74%)22 (92%)42 (93%)0.01164 (79%)11 (100%)6 (100%)0.22
 Yes25 (17%)20 (26%)2 (8%)3 (7%)40 (19%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Missing0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)3 (1%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Chronic lung disease=no102 (71%)51 (70%)15 (63%)36 (78%)0.38154 (74%)10 (91%)4 (67%)0.30
Diabetes=yes41 (29%)22 (30%)9 (38%)10 (22%)53 (26%)1 (9%)2 (33%)
Ischemic heart disease
 No94 (66%)43 (59%)15 (63%)36 (78%)0.08144 (70%)9 (82%)4 (67%)0.52
 Yes49 (34%)30 (41%)9 (38%)10 (22%)60 (29%)2 (18%)2 (33%)
 Missing0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)3 (1%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Cerebrovascular disease
 No106 (74%)46 (63%)18 (75%)42 (91%)0.003156 (75%)11 (100%)6 (100%)0.07
 Yes37 (26%)27 (37%)6 (25%)4 (9%)49 (24%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Missing0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
  • Tests are conducted on complete data. Values are n (%), unless otherwise stated. ICU, intensive care unit; BMI, body mass index; WHO, World Health Organization; Neut:lymp, neutrophil:lymphocyte; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.