Table 1.

Baseline demographics and laboratory values

Demographics and Laboratory ValuesRifaximin (n=17)Placebo (n=14)P Value
Demographics
 Age (yr)62±1365±90.52
 Sex0.22
  Female6 (35%)8 (57%)
  Male11 (65%)6 (43%)
 Race0.99
  Black3 (18%)3 (21%)
  White14 (82%)9 (64%)
  Other0 (0%)2 (14%)
 Body mass index, kg/m231±835±90.16
 Diabetes (type 1/2)7 (41%)11 (79%)0.07
 Etiology of CKD0.01
  Diabetes mellitus4 (24%)10 (71%)
  GN1 (6%)0 (0%)
  Hypertension4 (24%)1 (7%)
  Polycystic kidney disease0 (0%)1 (7%)
  Other8 (47%)2 (14%)
Baseline laboratory parameters
 eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)27.9±10.634.4±14.20.16
 Trimethylamine N-oxide (µM)18.8±18.715.6±11.60.74
 P-cresol sulfate (µg/ml)18.5±10.014.4±4.70.49
 Indoxyl sulfate (µg/ml)3.7±2.02.3±0.80.02
 Kynurenic acid (ng/ml)28.1±21.319.6±19.00.20
 Deoxycholic acid (ng/ml)372.2±268.3609.8±384.70.14
 C-reactive protein (µg/ml)8.5±22.18.2±11.60.32
 IL-6 (pg/ml)2.1±1.62.6±1.80.08
 Proteinuria0.72
  Nonea6 (35%)6 (43%)
  Mildb4 (24%)4 (29%)
  Moderatec7 (41%)4 (29%)
  • Continuous variables presented as mean±SD; categoric variables presented as n (%).

  • a Urine protein-creatinine ratio ≤0.3 or negative urinalysis.

  • b Urine protein-creatinine between 0.3 and 1.0, or urine dipstick of trace to 1+.

  • c Urine protein-creatinine ratio ≥1.0 or urine dipstick >1+.