Table 1.

Demographic, clinical characteristics, and hospital management features of all 224 patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 from the St George’s, King’s, and St Helier hospitals in London, collected between February 29 and May 15

VariablesSummary Type/CategoryAll Patients n (% by category)Discharged Alive n (% by category)Died n (% by category)Still in Care n (% by category)Subdistribution Hazard RatioAdjusted Subdistribution Hazard Ratio (210 obs. [94%])
Died versus SurvivedP ValueNo.Died versus SurvivedP Value
Total224154 (69%)51 (23%)19 (8%)
Demographics
 SexMale133 (59%)89 (58%)35 (69%)9 (47%)1
Female91 (41%)65 (42%)16 (31%)10 (53%)0.66 (0.36–1.20)0.17220
 Ethnicity
  BinaryWhite85 (38%)54 (35%)21 (41%)10 (53%)
Other139 (62%)100 (65%)30 (59%)9 (47%)0.85 (0.49–1.48)0.57220
   DetailedWhite85 (38%)54 (35%)21 (41%)10 (53%)
South Asian41 (18%)27 (18%)11 (22%)3 (16%)
East Asian8 (4%)5 (3%)3 (6%)0 (0%)
Black77 (34%)59 (38%)13 (25%)5 (26%)
Other13 (6%)9 (6%)3 (6%)1 (5%)
 Smoking historyNever94 (42%)71 (46%)12 (24%)11 (58%)1
Some71 (32%)43 (28%)22 (43%)6 (32%)2.69 (1.33–5.45)0.006a161
Missing59 (26%)40 (26%)17 (33%)2 (11%)
  Missing=NONever153 (68%)111 (72%)29 (57%)13 (68%)1
Some71 (32%)43 (28%)22 (43%)6 (32%)1.78 (1.03–3.08)0.04a220
  Missing=YESNever94 (42%)71 (46%)12 (24%)11 (58%)1
Some130 (58%)83 (54%)39 (76%)8 (42%)2.57 (1.34–4.93)0.005a220
 Age at admission (5-yr effect)Mean (SD)65.83 (14.39)63.90 (14.43)70.47 (13.79)69 (12.77)1.16 (1.03–1.30)0.01a2201.15 (1.002–1.31)0.05a
Median (Q1–Q3)67.5 (57–77)65 (57–76)73 (62–80)73 (59–81)
Range25–9026–9025–9038–82
 BMI (kg/m2)Mean (SD)28.2 (7.6)28.5 (8)26.9 (6.3)28.9 (7.9)0.97 (0.93–1.01)0.19193
Median (Q1–Q3)26.3 (23.1–31.2)26.2 (23.2–31.4)26.1 (21.7–30.0)26.6 (16.5–42)
Range16.5–57.818.7–57.817.4–49.216.5–42.1
Missing27 (12%)17 (11%)8 (16%)2 (11%)
Comorbidities
 WHO performance status
  Detailed016 (7%)15 (10%)1 (2%)0 (0%)
151 (23%)42 (27%)6 (12%)3 (16%)
267 (30%)43 (28%)16 (31%)8 (42%)
354 (24%)34 (22%)15 (29%)5 (26%)
429 (13%)13 (8%)13 (25%)3 (16%)
Missing7 (3%)7 (5%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
  Binary0–2134 (60%)100 (65%)23 (45%)11 (58%)
3–483 (37%)47 (31%)28 (55%)8 (42%)2.16 (1.25–3.74)0.006a213
Missing7 (3%)7 (5%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 History of cancerNo189 (84%)132 (86%)42 (82%)15 (79%)
Yes33 (15%)20 (13%)9 (18%)4 (21%)1.25 (0.613–2.57)0.54218
Missing2 (0.89%)2 (1%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 HypertensionNo41 (18%)24 (16%)8 (16%)9 (47%)
Yes182 (81%)129 (84%)43 (84%)10 (53%)1.27 (0.61–2.66)0.53219
Missing1 (0.45%)1 (0.65%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 DiabetesNo103 (46%)71 (46%)21 (41%)11 (58%)
Yes120 (54%)82 (53%)30 (59%)8 (42%)1.31 (0.76–2.28)0.34219
Missing1 (0.45%)1 (0.65%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 HFrEFNo181 (81%)124 (81%)40 (78%)17 (89%)
Yes40 (18%)27 (18%)11 (22%)2 (11%)1.38 (0.69–2.73)0.36217
Missing3 (1%)3 (2%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Chronic lung disease
  DetailedNo168 (75%)115 (75%)39 (76%)14 (74%)N/A
Asthma16 (7%)13 (8%)0 (0%)3 (16%)
Bronchiectasis1 (0.45%)1 (0.65%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
COPD15 (7%)6 (4%)8 (16%)1 (5%)
Fibrosis4 (2%)3 (2%)1 (2%)0 (0%)
Other17 (8%)13 (8%)3 (6%)1 (5%)
  BinaryNo168 (75%)115 (75%)39 (76%)14 (74%)
Yes56 (25%)39 (25%)12 (24%)5 (26%)0.92 (0.48–1.77)0.81220
 Ischemic heart diseaseNo157 (70%)116 (75%)28 (55%)13 (68%)
Yes64 (29%)35 (23%)23 (45%)6 (32%)2.28 (1.32–3.94)0.003a217
Missing3 (1%)3 (2%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Cerebrovascular diseaseNo173 (77%)124 (81%)33 (65%)16 (84%)
Yes49 (22%)28 (18%)18 (35%)3 (16%)2.11 (1.20–3.72)0.01a218
Missing2 (0.89%)2 (1%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Hospital management
 Length of stayMean (SD)19.01 (12.4)17.4 (9.8)15.6 (10.3)N/A
Median (Q1-Q3)16 (11–23.5)16 (11–22)14 (7–19)
Range1–601–552–43
Missing4 (2%)4 (3%)0 (0%)
 Management
  DetailedOutpatient81 (36%)78 (51%)3 (6%)0 (0%)1220
Outpatient to inpatient28 (13%)18 (12%)6 (12%)4 (21%)6.40 (1.55–26.36)0.01a5.50 (1.33–22.79)0.04a
Inpatient115 (51%)58 (38%)42 (82%)15 (79%)11.24 (3.38–37.37)<0.001a8.56 (2.54–28.83)0.001a
  BinaryOutpatient81 (36%)78 (51%)3 (6%)0 (0%)1<0.001a220
Part or total143 (64%)76 (49%)48 (94%)19 (100%)10.26 (3.10–33.94)
 On ACEi/ARBNo150 (67%)98 (64%)37 (73%)15 (79%)
Yes70 (31%)53 (34%)14 (27%)3 (16%)0.82 (0.44–1.52)0.52216
Missing4 (2%)3 (2%)0 (0%)1 (5%)
 Ceiling of care (only 143 obs)Ward73 (51%)31 (38%)34 (74%)8 (50%)1
NIV24 (17%)17 (21%)5 (11%)2 (13%)0.36 (0.14–0.94)0.04a141
Mechanical ventilation46 (32%)33 (41%)7 (15%)6 (38%)0.25 (0.12–0.56)0.001a
 Maximum breathing supportNone67 (30%)64 (42%)0 (0%)3 (16%)N/A
Nasal cannula60 (27%)40 (26%)14 (27%)6 (32%)
Venturi/face mask32 (14%)6 (4%)23 (45%)3 (16%)
NIV12 (5%)7 (5%)4 (8%)1 (5%)
Mechanical ventilation9 (4%)1 (0.65%)6 (12%)2 (11%)
Missing44 (20%)36 (23%)4 (8%)4 (21%)
 Dialysis accessFistula or AVG124 (55%)89 (58%)24 (47%)11 (58%)1
Line98 (44%)64 (42%)26 (51%)8 (42%)1.34 (0.77–2.32)0.30218
Missing2 (0.89%)1 (0.65%)1 (2%)0 (0%)
 Dialysis vintage (5-yr effect)Mean (SD)4.092 (4.46)3.99 (4.43)4.44 (4.76)3.94 (4.46)1.13 (0.86–1.48)0.39209
Median (Q1–Q3)2.82 (1.11–5.46)2.57 (1.05–5.27)3.11 (1.17–5.55)3.94 (1.2–5.23)
Range0.003–24.70.003–24.70.022–22.90.22–16.3
Missing11 (5%)8 (5%)2 (4%)1 (5%)
 ImmunosuppressionNo197 (88%)135 (88%)47 (92%)15 (79%)
Yes23 (10%)16 (10%)4 (8%)3 (16%)0.73 (0.27–1.94)0.52216
Missing4 (2%)3 (2%)0 (0%)1 (5%)
 ICU admissionNo207 (92%)148 (96%)44 (86%)15 (79%)
Yes11 (5%)3 (2%)6 (12%)2 (11%)
Missing6 (3%)3 (2%)1 (2%)2 (11%)
 Number of previous transplants0206 (92%)142 (92%)47 (92%)17 (89%)1
1–214 (6%)9 (6%)4 (8%)1 (5%)1.40 (0.54–3.67)0.50216
Missing4 (2%)3 (2%)0 (0%)1 (5%)
 Transplant wait listNo201 (90%)135 (88%)48 (94%)18 (95%)1
Yes16 (7%)14 (9%)2 (4%)0 (0%)0.52 (0.123–2.040)0.36215
Missing7 (3%)5 (3%)1 (2%)1 (5%)
Symptoms
 FeverNo58 (26%)40 (26%)17 (33%)1 (5%)
Yes138 (62%)96 (62%)31 (61%)11 (58%)0.72 (0.40–1.29)0.27193
Missing28 (13%)18 (12%)3 (6%)7 (37%)
 SOBNo105 (47%)85 (55%)17 (33%)3 (16%)
Yes92 (41%)52 (34%)31 (61%)9 (47%)2.32 (1.29–4.17)0.005a194
Missing27 (12%)17 (11%)3 (6%)7 (37%)
 Dry coughNo116 (52%)84 (55%)25 (49%)7 (37%)
Yes82 (37%)54 (35%)23 (45%)5 (26%)1.31 (0.74–2.29)0.35195
Missing26 (12%)16 (10%)3 (6%)7 (37%)
 Productive coughNo160 (71%)111 (72%)39 (76%)10 (53%)
Yes37 (17%)25 (16%)10 (20%)2 (11%)1.14 (0.57–2.26)0.71194
Missing27 (12%)18 (12%)2 (4%)7 (37%)
 HeadacheNo176 (79%)122 (79%)44 (86%)10 (53%)
Yes20 (9%)14 (9%)4 (8%)2 (11%)0.76 (0.27–2.10)0.59193
Missing28 (13%)18 (12%)3 (6%)7 (37%)
 VomitingNo166 (74%)118 (77%)39 (76%)9 (47%)
Yes30 (13%)18 (12%)9 (18%)3 (16%)1.29 (0.63–2.65)0.48193
Missing28 (13%)18 (12%)3 (6%)7 (37%)
 Aches and painsNo157 (70%)110 (71%)38 (75%)9 (47%)
Yes39 (17%)26 (17%)10 (20%)3 (16%)1.06 (0.53–2.15)0.86193
Missing28 (13%)18 (12%)3 (6%)7 (37%)
 DiarrheaNo165 (74%)113 (73%)43 (84%)9 (47%)
Yes30 (13%)23 (15%)5 (10%)2 (11%)0.60 (0.24–1.51)0.28192
Missing29 (13%)18 (12%)3 (6%)8 (42%)
 AsymptomaticNo186 (83%)127 (82%)47 (92%)12 (63%)
Yes10 (4%)9 (6%)1 (2%)0 (0%)0.37 (0.05–2.95)0.35193
Missing28 (13%)18 (12%)3 (6%)7 (37%)
Blood analyses
 Hemoglobin (g/L)Mean (SD)105.04 (15.28)104.13 (13.74)108.49 (18.383)103.06 (17.38)1.10 (0.99–1.22)0.09210
Median (Q1–Q3)105 (97–114)105 (96–113)107 (99–120)102.5 (91–116)
Range70–14573–14570–14172–136
Missing11 (5%)5 (3%)2 (4%)18 (95%)
 CRP (mg/L)
  10-U SHR effectMean (SD)103.62 (101.8)89.26 (92.13)140.76 (116.6)115.14 (110.2)1.03 (1.01–1.05)0.005a198
Median (Q1–Q3)74 (31.8–129.3)65 (28–103.8)113 (47–212)76.4 (38.7–183)
Range1.1–596.51.1–596.54.4–4716–368
Missing23 (10.27%)18 (11.69%)4 (7.84%)1 (5.26%)
  Log scaleMean (SD)4.074 (1.20)3.91 (1.29)4.51 (1.10)4.203 (1.22)1.44 (1.07–1.93)0.02a198
Median (Q1–Q3)4.30 (3.46–4.86)4.17 (3.33–4.64)4.73 (3.85–5.36)4.32 (3.7–5.21)
Range0.095–6.390.095–6.391.48–6.151.97–5.91
Missing23 (10%)18 (12%)4 (8%)1 (5%)
 White cell count
  Original scale (5-U effect)Mean (SD)6.16 (3.175)5.65 (3.029)7.39 (3.158)6.92 (3.476)1.70 (1.22–2.37)0.002a210
Median (Q1–Q3)5.38 (3.9–7.43)5.1 (3.5–6.6)6.9 (5.22–9.7)6.16 (4.27–8.1)
Range1.65–18.91.65–18.91.8–15.32.3–15.2
  Log scaleMean (SD)1.70 (0.49)1.62 (0.50)1.90 (0.47)1.82 (0.50)2.53 (1.45–4.42)0.001a210
Median (Q1–Q3)1.68 (1.36–2.01)1.63 (1.25–1.89)1.93 (1.65–2.27)1.81 (1.45–2.1)
Range0.5–2.940.50–2.940.59–2.730.83–2.72
Missing11 (5%)8 (5%)2 (4%)1 (5%)
 Neutrophil count (×109/L)
  Original scaleMean (SD)4.67 (2.99)4.22 (2.88)5.91 (3.02)4.98 (2.97)1.80 (1.26–2.56)0.001a210
Median (Q1–Q3)3.8 (2.6–5.93)3.5 (2.3–5.2)5.4 (3.57–7.9)4.52 (3–6.1)
Range0.68–17.50.68–17.51.1–13.91.2–12.6
  Log scaleMean (SD)1.36 (0.61)1.26 (0.59)1.64 (0.56)1.43 (0.64)2.30 (1.45–3.66)<0.001a210
Median (Q1–Q3)1.34 (0.96–1.78)1.25 (0.83–1.65)1.67 (1.27–2.07)1.51 (1.1–1.81)
Range−0.39–2.86−0.39–2.860.10–2.630.18–2.53
Missing11 (5%)8 (5%)2 (4%)1 (5%)
 Lymphocyte count (×109/L)
  Original scaleMean (SD)0.903 (0.49)0.889 (0.403)0.815 (0.56)1.27 (0.73)0.59 (0.23–1.53)0.28210
Median (Q1–Q3)0.8 (0.58–1.1)0.8 (0.6–1.1)0.7 (0.4–1)1.2 (0.8–1.6)
Range0.1–3.60.2–2.30.1–3.40.4–3.6
  Log scaleMean (SD)−0.23 (0.52)−0.22 (0.45)−0.39 (0.63)0.10 (0.54)0.52 (0.31–0.86)0.01a210
Median (Q1–Q3)−0.22 (−0.54–0.10)−0.22 (−1.08–0.70)−0.36 (−0.92–0.00)0.18 (−0.22–0.47)
Range−1.3–1.28−1.61–0.83−2.30–1.22−0.92–1.28
Missing11 (5%)8 (5%)2 (4%)1 (5%)
 Neut:lymp ratio
  Original scaleMean (SD)6.9 (8.4)5.7 (4.97)11.6 (14.3)4.8 (3.2)1.03 (1.017–1.05)<0.001a2101.03 (1.01–1.04)<0.001a
Median (Q1–Q3)4.7 (3.1–7.8)4.30 (2.9–6.7)7.2 (4.2–13.4)4.1 (2.1–7.4)
Range0.7–930.9–320.7–930.9–11.98
  Log scaleMean (SD)1.59 (0.80)1.47 (0.71)2.03 (0.90)1.33 (0.73)2.10 (1.54–2.87)<0.001a210
Median (Q1–Q3)1.54 (1.12–2.05)1.46 (1.05–1.91)1.98 (1.43–2.60)1.40 (0.76–1.99)
Range−0.31–4.53−0.13–3.47−0.31–4.53−0.07–2.48
Missing11 (5%)8 (5%)2 (4%)1 (5%)
 Albumin pre-presentation (g/L) (5-U effect)Mean (SD)33.66 (6.32)34.25 (6.01)31.88 (7.14)33 (6.26)0.80 (0.64–1.01)0.06a200
Median (Q1–Q3)34 (30–38)35 (31–39)33 (29–37)33.5 (29–35)
Range13–4716–4713–4522–43
Missing20 (9%)7 (5%)8 (16%)5 (26%)
  • The two columns on the right represent the univariate and adjusted effects of the corresponding raw variable on the SHR of death versus discharged alive, and the P values test the null hypothesis that that SHR is 1. An SHR value >1 indicates a harmful effect, whereas a value <1 indicates a protective effect of the corresponding variable on the left. The last column represents the most parsimonious model derived from the data. SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; obs, observed; Q1-3, quartile 1-3; BMI, body mass index; WHO, World Health Organization; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; N/A, not applicable; ACEi/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker; NIV, noninvasive ventilation; AVG, arteriovenous graft; ICU, intensive care unit; SOB, shortness of breath; CRP, C-reactive protein; SHR, subdistribution hazards ratio; Neut:lymp, neutrophil:lymphocyte. The percentages (%) sum up to 100 on columns, i.e., showing distribution of each variable within outcome category (discharged alive, dead and still in care).

  • a P<0.05.