Table 2.

Serum metabolite and inflammatory cytokine concentrations

ParameterRifaximin GroupPlacebo Group
PretreatmentPost-treatmentChangePretreatmentPost-treatmentChange
Trimethylamine N-oxide (µM)18.8±18.714.9±10.2−3.9±15.415.6±11.616.1±13.40.5±9.5
p-Cresol sulfate (µg/ml)18.5±10.014.2±8.8−4.3±7.614.4±4.715.3±8.20.9±7.6
Indoxyl sulfate (µg/ml)3.7±2.03.8±2.60.1±1.42.3±0.82.3±0.90.0±1.0
Kynurenic acid (ng/ml)28.1±21.328.5±15.60.4±10.619.6±6.919.0±6.1−0.6±2.6
Deoxycholic acid (ng/ml)372.2±268.3332.5±294.6−39.7±275.1609.8±384.7433.1±226.5−176.7±291.3
C-reactive protein (µg/ml)8.5±22.114.5±37.46.0±19.78.2±11.65.7±6.0−2.6±5.8
IL-6 (pg/ml)2.1±1.62.4±1.80.3±1.12.6±1.83.4±2.60.8±2.1
  • All measurements presented as mean±SD.