Table 3.

Adjusted association of symptoms and clinical findings with job task

Symptoms and FindingsOdds Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals)
Nonfield WorkersField Workers
Factory WorkersDriversCane CuttersIrrigatorsAgrichemical ApplicatorsSeed CuttersSeeders/Reseeders
Symptoms, prior 3 moa
 Abdominal, black, flank painReference1.22 (0.49 to 3.02)2.28 (0.89 to 5.82)0.69 (0.28 to 1.73)0.60 (0.20 to 1.82)0.18 (0.01 to 3.94)0.84 (0.21 to 3.36)
 Burning or pain during urinationReference0.67 (0.16 to 2.81)2.68 (0.79 to 9.07)0.60 (0.16 to 2.27)0.27 (0.03 to 2.28)2.46 (0.37 to 16.3)0.55 (0.06 to 5.08)
 Periods of frequent urinationReference1.23 (0.33 to 4.62)2.62 (0.72 to 9.61)0.72 (0.17 to 3.00)0.17 (0.01 to 3.12)0.57 (0.02 to 13.8)1.07 (0.15 to 7.67)
 Any fever or chillsReference0.75 (0.19 to 2.99)4.69 (1.42 to 15.5)b0.44 (0.10 to 2.05)0.14 (0.01 to 2.60)1.73 (0.21 to 14.4)1.68 (0.32 to 8.78)
ChistatacReference1.13 (0.45 to 2.84)3.24 (1.29 to 8.17)b0.79 (0.33 to 1.91)0.80 (0.29 to 2.27)4.67 (0.98 to 22.3)0.88 (0.24 to 3.28)
Health-related behaviors and diagnoses, prior 3 moa
 Taken antibioticsReference0.68 (0.21 to 2.18)0.54 (0.14 to 2.02)0.46 (0.14 to 1.48)0.32 (0.07 to 1.58)1.49 (0.25 to 9.10)0.72 (0.14 to 3.83)
 Taken pain medications >3 dReference2.93 (0.96 to 8.96)1.96 (0.54 to 7.16)0.87 (0.23 to 3.38)0.32 (0.04 to 2.81)1.43 (0.14 to 14.7)3.63 (0.83 to 15.9)
 Sought medical treatmentReference0.58 (0.18 to 1.90)1.56 (0.50 to 4.87)0.37 (0.09 to 1.48)0.81 (0.23 to 2.89)2.01 (0.33 to 12.4)2.93 (0.77 to 11.1)
 Diagnosed with a UTIReference0.40 (0.06 to 2.95)0.41 (0.05 to 3.39)0.57 (0.08 to 4.03)0.81 (0.11 to 5.75)0.87 (0.03 to 23.4)1.41 (0.17 to 11.9)
Dipstick parameters, preharvest
 Leukocyte esteraseReference0.70 (0.10 to 4.82)2.85 (0.56 to 14.7)0.53 (0.07 to 3.80)0.88 (0.12 to 6.33)1.24 (0.04 to 34.7)0.63 (0.03 to 14.0)
 ProteinuriaReference0.43 (0.02 to 9.68)4.32 (0.48 to 39.1)2.69 (0.34 to 21.4)0.70 (0.03 to 17.0)3.41 (0.09 to 126)1.71 (0.06 to 46.2)
Dipstick parameters, late harvest
 Leukocyte esteraseReference1.45 (0.15 to 14.0)15.4 (2.55 to 92.4)b3.25 (0.50 to 21.3)1.83 (0.19 to 18.1)9.59 (0.97 to 95.1)9.86 (1.28 to 76.0)b
 ProteinuriaReference1.00 (0.12 to 8.28)2.38 (0.23 to 24.4)2.82 (0.48 to 16.8)0.53 (0.02 to 11.8)4.73 (0.14 to 164)5.78 (0.56 to 59.6)
 BloodReference0.44 (0.08 to 2.49)0.75 (0.14 to 3.91)1.49 (0.38 to 5.76)0.81 (0.15 to 4.50)1.80 (0.16 to 19.9)3.16 (0.60 to 16.6)
  • Odds ratios (95% CI) for self-reported symptoms and dipstick parameters (preharvest and late harvest) compared with reference group (factory workers), adjusting for age and employment duration (n=244 for symptoms and behaviors/treatments, n=247 for dipstick except blood, n=246 for blood at late harvest, n=243 for UTI diagnoses). UTI, urinary tract infection.

  • a Workers reported symptoms, health-related behaviors, and recent UTI diagnoses during late-harvest data collection.

  • b P<0.05.

  • c Chistata is a colloquial term that describes a set of symptoms including painful urination, burning during urination, and back pain.