Table 2.

Comparisons of patient characteristics between CKD screening versus not and CKD recognition versus not

CharacteristicsScreeningRecognition
Screened (N=254,831; 94%)Not Screened (N=15,339; 6%)Recognized (N=40,586; 44%)Not Recognized (N=52,314; 56%)
Existing patients at start of October 2012, n (%)a160,987 (94%)10,102 (6%)31,616 (45%)38,862 (55%)
Entered cohort in October 2012 to September 2014, n (%)a35,359 (95%)1890 (5%)4006 (40%)6115 (60%)
Entered cohort in October 2014 to September 2016, n (%)a31,977 (94%)1909 (6%)2984 (40%)4469 (60%)
Entered cohort in October 2016 to September 2018, n (%)a26,508 (95%)1438 (5%)1980 (41%)2868 (59%)
Age, mean±SD62.1 (13.2)61.7 (14.0)68.3 (11.0)66.9 (11.4)
Male, n (%)238,582 (94%)14,511 (95%)39,270 (97%)49,244 (94%)
Race, n (%)
 Non-Hispanic white140,998 (55%)4622 (30%)22,961 (57%)31,341 (60%)
 Non-Hispanic black46,013 (18%)1401 (9%)7395 (18%)9428 (18%)
 Hispanic39,137 (15%)5225 (34%)5564 (14%)5642 (11%)
 Asian1032 (0.4%)89 (0.6%)99 (0.2%)112 (0.2%)
 American Indian/Pacific Islander3552 (1%)543 (4%)609 (2%)669 (1%)
 Multirace1811 (0.7%)48 (0.3%)3664 (9%)4768 (9%)
 Unknown22,288 (9%)3411 (22%)294 (0.7%)354 (0.7%)
BMI, mean (SD)30.7 (6.1)30.4 (5.7)30.6 (6.1)30.4 (6.0)
eGFR ml/min per 1.73 m2, median (IQR)39 (29.9–46.2)51 (45.0–55.0)
 Not available, n (%)32,654 (13%)15,339 (100%)233 (0.6%)1524 (3%)
 >60 ml/min, n (%)123,640 (49%)01547 (4%)6774 (13%)
 <60 ml/min but not confirmed, n (%)17,292 (7%)0387 (1%)1190 (2%)
 45–60 ml/min, n (%)44,055 (17%)011,603 (29%)32,452 (62%)
 30–45 ml/min, n (%)26,297 (10%)017,184 (42%)9113 (17%)
 <30 ml/min, n (%)10,893 (4%)09632 (24%)1261 (2%)
uACR in mg/g, median (IQR)132 (65.7–326.8)78.5 (48–156.3)
 Not available, n (%)129,175 (51%)15,339 (100%)14,841 (37%)21,967 (42%)
 <30 mg/g, n (%)84,054 (33%)010,152 (25%)13,266 (25%)
 >30 mg/g but not confirmed, n (%)16,601 (7%)04543 (11%)3130 (6%)
 30–300 mg/g, n (%)20,415 (8%)08068 (20%)12,347 (24%)
 >300 mg/g, n (%)4586 (2%)02982 (7%)1604 (3%)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes w/o hypertension11,329 (5%)966 (6%)595 (2%)1514 (3%)
 Hypertension w/o diabetes132,040 (52%)8226 (54%)14,541 (36%)23,233 (44%)
 Both diabetes and hypertension111,462 (44%)6147 (40%)25,450 (63%)27,567 (53%)
 Cardiovascular disease116,361 (46%)5932 (39%)27,047 (67%)28,995 (52%)
 Peripheral arterial disease25,232 (10%)1469 (10%)7803 (19%)6124 (12%)
 Stroke32,739 (13%)1453 (10%)8747 (22%)8445 (16%)
 Tumor113,267 (44%)5451 (36%)22,192 (55%)26,307 (50%)
Primary care visits per year, mean±SD4.09 (2.64)3.97 (2.33)4.80 (2.98)4.19 (2.62)
Specialty care visits per year, mean±SD0.58 (1.42)0.33 (0.85)0.99 (2.05)0.66 (1.48)
ER visit and hospitalization per year, mean±SD0.56 (1.43)0.015 (0.20)0.87 (1.83)0.59 (1.37)
Elective procedures, n/yr, mean±SD
 Radiologic0.61 (1.78)0.16 (0.55)0.57 (1.76)0.83 (2.26)
 Endovascular0.054 (0.44)0.0004 (0.02)0.120 (0.71)0.069 (0.46)
 Cardiac0.059 (0.37)0.0006 (0.02)0.123 (0.61)0.078 (0.41)
Median BP value, n (%)
 Not diagnosed with HTN11,329 (4%)966 (6%)595 (2%)1514 (3%)
 Not available2291 (0.9%)429 (3%)135 (0.3%)213 (0.4%)
 <130/80 mm Hg73,528 (29%)4419 (29%)12,678 (31%)16,662 (32%)
 130–140/80–90 mm Hg135050 (53%)7696 (50%)20,661 (51%)27,383 (52%)
 >140/90 mm Hg32,633 (13%)1829 (12%)6517 (16%)6542 (13%)
Medications, n (%)
 ACEI/ARB162,498 (64%)9315 (61%)30,028 (74%)36,238 (69%)
 Diuretics122,629 (48%)6748 (44%)26,029 (64%)28,562 (55%)
 Statin174,210 (68%)9774 (64%)32,359 (80%)39,108 (75%)
 NSAIDs129,710 (51%)8623 (56%)15,433 (38%)25,248 (48%)
  • All the comparisons in this table have a P value <0.001, except PAD in screening group (P=0.19) and BMI in CKD recognition (P=0.013). BMI, body mass index; IQR, interquartile range; uACR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio; w/o, without; ER, emergency room; HTN, hypertension; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PAD, peripheral artery disease.

  • a The percentages for the cohort groups are based on the total for that group from Table 1. The rest of the percentages (rows without a) are calculated with N from the column as the denominator.