Table 1.

Characteristics of total population and by CKD screening, evidence, and recognition status

CharacteristicsTotal (N=270,170)Screened for CKD (N=254,831; 94%)Laboratory Evidence of CKD (N=92,900; 37%)Recognized as CKD (N=40,586; 44%)
Existing patients on October 1, 2012, n (%)171,089 (63%)160,987 (94%)70,478 (44%)31,616 (45%)
Entered cohort between October 2012 and September 2014, n (%)37,249 (14%)35,359 (95%)10,121 (29%)4006 (40%)
Entered cohort between October 2014 and September 2016, n (%)33,886 (13%)31,977 (94%)7453 (23%)2984 (40%)
Entered cohort between October 2016 and September 2018, n (%)27,946 (10%)26,508 (95%)4848 (18%)1980 (41%)
Age, mean±SD62.1±13.362.1±13.267.5±11.368.3±11.0
Male, n (%)253,094 (94%)238,582 (94%)88,514 (95%)39,270 (97%)
Race, n (%)
 Non-Hispanic white145,620 (54%)140,998 (97%)54,302 (39%)2,2961 (42%)
 Non-Hispanic black47,414 (18%)46,013 (97%)16,823 (37%)7395 (44%)
 Hispanic44,362 (16%)39,137 (88%)11,206 (29%)5564 (50%)
 Asian1121 (0.4%)1032 (92%)211 (20%)99 (47%)
 American Indian/Pacific Islander4095 (2%)3552 (87%)1278 (36%)609 (48%)
 Multirace1859 (0.7%)1811 (97%)648 (36%)294 (45%)
 Unknown25,699 (10%)22,288 (87%)8432 (38%)3664 (44%)
BMI, mean±SD30.7±6.130.7±6.130.5±6.130.6±6.1
eGFR, n (%)
 Not available47,993 (18%)32,654 (68%)1757 (5%)a233 (13%)a
 >60 ml/min123,640 (46%)123,640 (100%)8321 (7%)a1547(19%)a
 <60 ml/min but not confirmed17,292 (6%)17,292 (100%)1577 (9%)a387 (25%)a
 45–60 ml/min44,055 (16%)44,055 (100%)44,055 (100%)11,603 (26%)
 30–45 ml/min26,297 (10%)26,297 (100%)26,297 (100%)17,184 (65%)
 <30 ml/min10,893 (4%)10,893 (100%)10,893 (100%)9632 (88%)
uACR, n (%)
 Not available144,514 (54%)129,175 (89%)36,808 (50%)14,841 (40%)
 <30 mg/g84,054 (31%)84,054 (100%)23,418 (28%)10,152 (43%)
 >30 mg/g, but not confirmed16,601 (6%)16,601 (100%)7673 (46%)4543 (59%)
 30–300 mg/g20,415 (8%)20,415 (100%)20,415 (100%)8068 (40%)
 >300 mg/g4586 (2%)4586 (100%)4586 (100%)2982 (65%)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes w/o hypertension12,295 (5%)11,329 (92%)2109 (19%)595 (28%)
 Hypertension w/o diabetes140,266 (52%)132,040 (94%)37,774 (29%)14,541 (39%)
 Both diabetes and hypertension117,609 (44%)111,462 (95%)53,017 (48%)25,450 (48%)
 Cardiovascular disease122,293 (45%)116,361 (95%)56,042 (48%)27,047 (48%)
 Peripheral arterial disease26,701 (10%)25,232 (95%)13,927 (55%)7803 (56%)
 Stroke34,192 (13%)32,739 (96%)17,192 (53%)8747 (51%)
 Tumor118,718 (44%)113,267 (95%)48,499 (43%)22,192 (46%)
Primary care visits per year, mean±SD4.09±2.624.09±2.644.46±2.804.80±2.98
Specialty care visits per year, mean±SD0.57±1.390.58±1.420.81±1.760.99±2.05
ER visit and hospitalization per year, mean±SD0.53±1.400.56±1.430.71±1.600.87±1.83
Elective procedures, n/yr, mean±SD
 Radiologic0.58±1.740.61±1.780.717±2.060.57±1.76
 Endovascular0.051±0.430.054±0.440.091±0.580.120±0.71
 Cardiac0.056±0.360.059±0.370.098±0.510.123±0.61
Median BP value, n (%)
 Not diagnosed with HTN12,295 (5%)11,329 (92%)2109 (19%)595 (28%)
 Not available2720 (1%)2291 (84%)348 (15%)135 (38%)
 <130/80 mm Hg77,947 (29%)73,528 (94%)29,340 (40%)12,678 (43%)
 130–140/80–90 mm Hg142,746 (53%)135,050 (95%)48,044 (36%)20,661 (43%)
 >140/90 mmHg34,462 (13%)32,633 (95%)13,059 (40%)6517 (50%)
Medications, n (%)
 ACEI/ARB171,813 (64%)162,498 (95%)66,266 (41%)30,028 (45%)
 Diuretics129,377 (48%)122,629 (95%)54,591 (45%)26,029 (48%)
 Statin183,984 (68%)174,210 (95%)71,467 (41%)32,359 (45%)
 NSAIDs138,333 (51%)129,710 (94%)40,681 (31%)15,433 (38%)
  • The percentages are calculated with the denominator from the preceding column in this row, e.g., the “Total” column is the denominator for “Screened for CKD.” However, for the column labeled "Total", the denominator is the cohort total (270,170), and for sex percentage in each column, the denominator is total of that column in the top row. BMI, body mass index; uACR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio; w/o, without; ER, emergency room; HTN, hypertension; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • a These individuals’ CKD diagnosis is based on proteinuria alone.