Table 3.

Logistic regression analysis with CKD screening and recognition as the outcome variables

ParametersCKD ScreeningCKD Recognition
Odds Ratio (99% CI)P ValueOdds Ratio (99% CI)P Value
Age (ref: 18 yr)a1.00 (0.99 to 1.003)0.050.99 (0.99 to 0.99)<0.001
Sex, female versus male1.02 (0.92 to 1.13)0.660.52 (0.47 to 0.57)<0.001
Cohort entry (ref: before October 1, 2012)b
 October 1, 2012 to September 30, 20141.02 (0.95 to 1.09)0.5
  October 1, 2014 to September 30, 20161.10 (1.02 to 1.19)0.0008
 October 1, 2016 to September 30, 20181.17 (1.07 to 1.28)<0.001
Race
 Unknown versus white0.23 (0.22 to 0.25)<0.0011.12 (1.04 to 1.20)<0.001
 Black versus white0.96 (0.89 to 1.05)0.251.13 (1.07 to 1.19)<0.001
 Asian versus white0.45 (0.34 to 0.60)<0.0011.60 (1.06 to 2.40)0.003
 American Indian versus white0.21 (0.19 to 0.24)<0.0011.28 (1.08 to 1.52)0.0002
 Hispanic versus white0.28 (0.27 to 0.30)<0.0011.50 (1.41 to 1.60)<0.001
eGFR >60 ml/min (reference)Not applicable
 Not available0.75 (0.61 to 0.91)0.0001
 45–60 ml/min2.90 (2.64 to 3.20)<0.001
 30–45 ml/min14.32 (12.98 to 15.8)<0.001
 <30 ml/min49.99 (44.27 to 56.45)<0.001
uACR <30 mg/g (reference)Not applicable
 Not available 0.79 (0.75 to 0.83)<0.001
 30–300 mg/g 1.33 (1.24 to 1.43)<0.001
 >300 mg/g 2.19 (1.95 to 2.45)<0.001
Comorbidities
 DM (ref: both HTN and DM)0.87 (0.83 to 0.91)<0.0010.63 (0.54 to 0.73)<0.001
 HTN (ref: both HTN and DM)0.78 (0.70 to 0.87)<0.0010.90 (0.86 to 0.95)<0.001
 CVD (ref: no CVD)1.01 (0.96 to 1.06)0.581.09 (1.04 to 1.14)<0.001
 PAD (ref: no PAD)0.78 (0.72 to 0.85)<0.0011.29 (1.21 to 1.37)<0.001
 Stroke (ref: no stroke)1.06 (0.98 to 1.15)0.051.05 (0.99 to 1.11)0.011
 Tumor (ref: no tumor)1.06 (1.01 to 1.11)0.0011.13 (1.08 to 1.18)<0.001
Visits (ref: no visit)c
 Primary care visits0.99 (0.98 to 0.99)<0.0011.04 (1.03 to 1.04)<0.001
 Specialty care visits0.91 (0.89 to 0.94)<0.0011.00 (0.98 to 1.01)0.8
 ER visit and hospitalization222.37 (162.5 to 304.2)<0.0011.03 (1.02 to 1.05)<0.001
Elective procedures (ref: no procedure)a
 Radiologic1.18 (1.14 to 1.23)<0.0010.91 (0.90 to 0.93)<0.001
 Endovascular9.44 (3.36 to 26.53)<0.0010.98 (0.94 to 1.02)0.1
 Cardiac9.48 (4.02 to 22.32)<0.0010.97 (0.93 to 1.01)0.07
Medications (ref: no medication)
 ACEI/ARB1.01 (0.96 to 1.07)0.581.06 (1.01 to 1.12)0.002
 Diuretics0.91 (0.87 to 0.96)<0.0010.99 (0.95 to 1.04)0.72
 NSAIDs0.64 (0.6 to 0.67)<0.0010.77 (0.74 to 0.81)<0.001
 Statin1.11 (1.06 to 1.17)<0.0011.1 (1.04 to 1.16)<0.001
  • An odds ratio of <1 in this analysis means that the category, compared with the reference group, is less likely to be screened or recognized. An odds ratio of >1 means the category is more likely to get screened than the reference category, e.g., those not on diuretics are less likely to get screened than those on diuretics. Ref, reference; uACR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio; DM, diabetes; HTN, hypertension; CVD, cardiovascular disease; PAD, peripheral artery disease; ER, emergency room; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • a Odds ratio is for a unit change of 1 yr.

  • b There was no time trend for screening in univariate analysis, so not included in the regression analysis.

  • c Odds ratio is for a unit change of 1/year.