Table 2.

Factors associated with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring apparent treatment-resistant hypertension and white coat apparent treatment-resistant hypertension

VariableAdjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
White Coat Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension Compared with No Apparent Treatment-Resistant HypertensionAmbulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension Compared with No Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension
Age, per 5-yr increase1.15 (0.95 to 1.41)1.14 (1.06 to 1.24)
Sex, men versus women0.58 (0.28 to 1.21)1.75 (1.28 to 2.38)
Race: Hispanic or other versus non-Hispanic white5.12 (2.02 to 12.92)1.41 (0.91 to 2.18)
Race: non-Hispanic black versus non-Hispanic white2.47 (1.01 to 6.03)3.19 (2.31 to 4.40)
eGFR per SD1.05 (0.94 to 1.18)1.07 (1.02 to 1.12)
Urine protein-creatinine ratio (log) per SD1.28 (0.70 to 2.34)2.01 (1.53 to 2.63)
BMI: 25 to <30 (overweight) versus <25 (normal)0.87 (0.29 to 2.62)1.56 (0.90 to 2.71)
BMI: 30 to <40 (obese) versus <25 (normal)0.65 (0.22 to 1.90)2.04 (1.20 to 3.46)
BMI: >40 (morbidly obese) versus <25 (normal)1.37 (0.40 to 4.74)2.62 (1.39 to 4.96)
Diabetes mellitus (yes versus no)2.09 (0.96 to 4.57)1.93 (1.43 to 2.61)
  • Ambulatory BP monitoring apparent treatment-resistant hypertension indicates apparent treatment-resistant hypertension by ambulatory BP monitoring criteria or use of more than three antihypertensive medications; white coat apparent treatment-resistant hypertension indicates apparent treatment-resistant hypertension by office BP but not by ambulatory BP monitoring criteria. BMI, body mass index.