Table 1.

Clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and outcomes in the use of ACEI or ARB prior to hospitalization

CharacteristicsHistory of ACEI and ARB UseP Value
Neither (N=220)ACEI or ARB Use (N=80)
Demographics
 Age55.7±18.068.5±11.7<0.001
 Sex
  Male118 (54%)48 (60%)0.33
  Female102 (46%)32 (40%)
 BMIa29.7±6.530.5±5.60.37
Comorbidities
 Hypertension53 (24%)80 (100%)<0.001
 Diabetes37 (17%)37 (46%)<0.001
 Coronary artery disease27 (12%)25 (31%)<0.001
 Vascular disease14 (6%)6 (8%)0.73
 Heart failure21 (10%)23 (29%)<0.001
 CKD19 (9%)15 (19%)0.01
 ESKD2 (0.9%)2 (3%)0.29
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease10 (5%)9 (11%)0.04
 Other lung disease29 (13%)6 (8%)0.18
BP on admission, mm Hg
 SBP126.4±20.4128.7±24.10.41
 DBP74.4±11.270.7±11.90.01
 MAP91.9±13.189.6±13.80.20
Serum potassium on admission, mmol/L4.1±0.54.2±0.60.15
Kidney function on admission
 AKI24 (11%)30 (38%)<0.001
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m292.0 (70.5–109)58.0 (40.0–80.0)<0.001
 sCr, mg/dl0.86 (0.70–1.1)1.1 (0.87–1.6)<0.001
Kidney function during hospitalization
 AKI25 (11%)22 (28%)<0.001
 RRT3 (1%)5 (6%)0.03
 HD2 (0.9%)5 (6%)0.02
 CRRT2 (0.9%)2 (3%)0.30
Laboratory values (inflammation)
 Ferritin, ng/ml
  Admissionb607.0 (270.3–1243)660.0 (335.5–1360)0.47
  Peakc816 (351–1668)912 (513–1839)0.22
  FC in levelb1.0 (1.0–1.6)1.4 (1.0–2.4)0.05
 LDH, IU/L
  Admissionb317.5 (239–424)303.5 (243–376)0.34
  Peakc401.0 (296–550)392 (322–570)0.55
  FC in levelb1.1 (1.0–1.4)1.2 (1.0–1.8)0.02
 ESR, mm/h
  Admissionb40.0 (21–62)44.0 (23–63)0.61
  Peakc73.0 (44–95.5)74.0 (47–100.5)0.89
  FC in levelb1.2 (1.0–2.1)10 (1.0–2.1)0.72
 D-dimer, ng/ml
  Admissionb301 (198–503)305 (173–486)0.95
  Peakc680 (301–2582)550 (322–2675)0.84
  FC in levelb1.2 (1.0–5.2)1.1 (1.0–6.4)0.93
 CRP, mg/dl
  Admissionb6.2 (2.9–13.1)7.7 (3.5–13.3)0.32
  Peakc10.6 (5.0–22.4)13.9 (7.9–27.8)0.02
  FC in levelb1.2 (1.0–2.4)1.8 (1.0–3.1)0.07
Inflammation scores (0–15)
 Peak inflammation score6.0 (2.0–10.0)7.0 (3.0–10.0)0.09
 FC inflammation score3.0 (0–6.0)4.0 (0–9.0)0.10
Hospital outcomes
 ICU admission59 (27%)22 (28%)0.91
 Invasive mechanical ventilation50 (23%)19 (24%)0.85
 Patient outcome
  Discharged195 (89%)66 (83%)0.16
  Death25 (11%)14 (18%)
 Length of stay, d7.0 (11.0)9.0 (10.5)0.12
  • Data are presented as a number and percentage, median (25th–75th percentiles), or mean±SD. P value<0.05 considered statistically significant in analysis. ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic BP; DBP, diastolic BP; MAP, mean arterial pressure; sCr, serum creatinine; HD, hemodialysis; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; FC, fold change; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP, C-reactive protein; ICU, intensive care unit.

  • a 92% of patients had data available for BMI.

  • b 51% of patients had data available for analysis for admission and FC values for ferritin, 86% was available for LDH, 46% was available for ESR, 59% was available for D-dimer, and 86% was available for CRP.

  • c 79% of patients had data available for analysis for peak values for ferritin, 94% was available for LDH, 77% was available for ESR, 82% was available for D-dimer, and 94% was available for CRP.