Table 3.

Clinical Characteristics, laboratory values, and outcomes in the use of ACEI or ARB during hospitalization

CharacteristicStatus of ACEI or ARB during HospitalizationP Value
Held (N=31)Continued (N=49)
Demographics
 Age69.9±12.367.6±11.40.39
 Sex
  Male22 (71%)26 (53%)0.11
  Female9 (29%)23 (47%)
 BMIa30.4±6.130.5±5.40.92
Comorbidities
 Hypertension31 (100%)49 (100%)N.A
 Diabetes15 (48%)22 (45%)0.76
 Coronary artery disease11 (36%)14 (29%)0.52
 Vascular disease4 (13%)2 (4%)0.20
 Heart failure8 (26%)15 (31%)0.64
 CKD7 (23%)8 (16%)0.49
 ESKD0 (0%)2 (4%)0.52
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease3 (10%)6 (12%)1.00
 Other lung disease1 (3%)5 (10%)0.40
BP on admission
 SBP, mm Hg130.4±26.0127.6±23.10.62
 DBP, mm Hg69.5±12.071.5±11.90.48
 MAP, mm Hg89.1±13.890.0±14.00.79
Serum potassium on admission, mmol/L4.3±0.64.1±0.60.23
Kidney function on admission
 AKI18 (58%)12 (25%)0.003
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m243.0 (36.0–60.0)71.0 (48.0–88.0)0.004
 sCr, mg/dl1.4 (1.0–1.8)1.0 (0.8–1.3)<0.001
Kidney function during hospitalization
 AKI12 (39%)10 (20%)0.07
 RRT2 (7%)3 (6%)1.00
 HD2 (7%)3 (6%)1.00
 CRRT1 (3%)1 (2.0%)1.00
Laboratory values (inflammation)
 Ferritin, ng/ml
  Admissionb596.9 (326–971.6)826.0 (352–1490)0.19
  Peakc829.3 (562–1839)971.2 (434–1793)1.00
  FC in levelb1.4 (1.0–3.1)1.3 (1.0–2.2)0.34
 LDH, IU/L
  Admissionb328.5 (247–438)296.0 (243–358)0.26
  Peakc465 (346–635)372.0 (298–513)0.04
  FC in levelb1.2 (1.1–2.0)1.2 (1.0–1.6)0.38
 ESR, mm/h
  Admissionb47.0 (33.5–74.5)39.0 (19.0–53.0)0.16
  Peakc81.5 (70.5–109.5)55.0 (32.5–98.5)0.02
  FC in levelb1.8 (1.0–2.3)1.1 (1.0–1.9)0.26
 D-dimer, ng/ml
  Admissionb291.0 (186–544)322.0 (173–466)0.66
  Peakc689.0 (392–2675)512.0 (287–2377)0.43
  FC in levelb1.1 (1.0–14.3)1.1 (1.0–4.0)0.96
 CRP, mg/dl
  Admissionb9.4 (3.6–15.3)7.3 (3.3–11.4)0.17
  Peakc19.9 (11.1–33.7)12.2 (6.8–21.8)0.03
  FC in levelb2.0 (1.0–3.0)1.6 (1.0–3.1)0.64
Inflammation scores (0–15)
 Peak inflammation score9.0 (7.0–12.0)6.0 (3.0–10.0)0.02
 FC inflammation score5.0 (1.0–11.0)3.0 (0–9.0)0.21
Hospital outcomes
 ICU admission13 (42%)9 (18%)0.021
 Invasive mechanical ventilation10 (32%)9 (18%)0.15
 Patient outcome
  Discharged22 (71%)44 (90%)0.04
  Death9 (29%)5 (10%)
 Length of stay, d9.0 (5.0–15.0)7.0 (4.0–14.0)0.50
  • Data are presented as a number and percentage, median (25th–75th percentiles), or mean±SD. P values <0.05 considered statistically significant in analysis. ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic BP; DBP, diastolic BP; MAP, mean arterial pressure; sCr, serum creatinine; HD, hemodialysis; CRRT, continuous RRT; FC, fold change; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP, C-reactive protein; ICU, intensive care unit.

  • a 91% of patients had data available for BMI.

  • b 51% of patients had data available for analysis for admission and FC values for ferritin, 86% was available for LDH, 46% was available for ESR, 59% was available for D-dimer, and 86% was available for CRP.

  • c 79% of patients had data available for analysis for peak values for ferritin, 94% was available for LDH, 77% was available for ESR, 82% was available for D-dimer, and 94% was available for CRP.