Table 1.

Characteristics of Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants by hypertension category

VariableApparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension by Office Blood Pressure Criteria, n=475No Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension by Office Blood Pressure Criteria, n=711P Value
White Coat Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension, n=40Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension, n=435
Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Criteria, n=162Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension by Use of >3 Antihypertensive Medications, n=273
Age, yr, mean ± SD65.8 (±7.9)66.3 (±8.2)64.7 (±9)63.0 (±10.4)<0.001
Women, n (%)25 (62.5%)68 (42.0%)92 (33.7%)315 (44.3%)0.001
Race, n (%)<0.001
 Non-Hispanic white10 (25%)31 (19.1%)113 (41.4%)386 (54.3%)
 Non-Hispanic black15 (37.5%)95 (58.6%)130 (47.6%)222 (31.2%)
 Hispanic or other15 (37.5%)36 (22.2%)30 (11.0%)103 (14.5%)
Education category, n (%)<0.001
 Less than high school11 (27.5%)40 (24.7%)53 (19.4%)86 (12.1%)
 High school graduate9 (22.5%)45 (27.8%)47 (17.2%)115 (16.2%)
 Some college10 (25%)42 (25.9%)101 (37.0%)228 (32.1%)
 College graduate or higher10 (25%)35 (21.6%)72 (26.4%)282 (39.7%)
Household income, n (%)<0.001
 $20,000 or under20 (50%)56 (34.6%)89 (32.6%)147 (20.7%)
 $20,001–$50,00012 (30%)53 (32.7%)72 (26.4%)182 (25.6%)
 $50,000–$100,0002 (5%)14 (8.6%)43 (15.7%)194 (27.3%)
 >$100,0001 (2.5%)8 (4.9%)31 (11.3%)89 (12.5%)
 Do not wish to answer5 (12.5%)31 (19.1%)38 (13.9%)99 (13.9%)
Health insurance status, n (%)<0.001
 None4 (10%)18 (11.1%)22 (8.0%)46 (6.5%)
 Medicaid/public aid7 (17.5%)28 (17.3%)36 (13.2%)79 (11.1%)
 Any Medicare15 (37.5%)68 (42.0%)101 (37.0%)240 (33.7%)
 VA/military/champus0 (0%)14 (8.6%)29 (10.6%)40 (5.6%)
 Private/commercial7 (17.5%)13 (8.0%)28 (10.2%)130 (18.3%)
 Unknown/incomplete information7 (17.5%)21 (13.0%)57 (20.89)176 (24.7%)
Nephrology care, n (%)31 (77.5%)134 (82.7%)246 (90.1%)598 (84.1%)0.04
MI/prior revascularization, n (%)15 (37.5%)63 (38.9%)133 (48.7%)156 (22.0%)<0.001
Stroke, n (%)6 (15%)25 (15.4%)44 (16.1%)70 (9.8%)0.02
Heart failure, n (%)4 (10%)22 (13.6%)62 (22.7%)48 (6.7%)<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease, n (%)0 (0%)13 (8.02%)35 (12.8%)37 (5.2%)<0.001
Diabetes, n (%)27 (67.5%)110 (67.9%)184 (67.4%)316 (44.4%)<0.001
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD33.4 (±8.1)33.1 (±7.0)33.2 (±6.4)31.2 (±6.9)<0.001
Current smoker, n (%)1 (2.5%)17 (10.5%)24 (±8.8%)51 (7.2%)0.11
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean ± SD39.8 (±17.4)40.0 (±20.0)38.5 (±17.1)47.7 (±18.6)<0.001
Urine protein-creatinine ratioa0.8 (1.7)1.4 (1.994)0.735 (1.321)0.406 (0.828)<0.001
Office systolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD149.0 (±13.5)155.0 (±20.0)120.0 (±13.5)117.9 (±11.9)<0.001
Office diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD75.45 (±12.5)75.0 (±15.1)64.0 (±10.7)67.0 (±10.3)<0.001
24-h mean systolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD124.1 (±8.1)148.5 (±13.5)127.3 (±13.2)122.3 (±12.0)<0.001
24-h mean diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD68.8 (±8.4)77.4 (±10.8)69.3 (±8.1)70.2 (±7.9)<0.001
Daytime mean systolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD126.3 (±7.4)150.6 (±12.7)128.9 (±12.7)124.8 (±11.8)<0.001
Daytime mean diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD70.7 (±8.5)79.0 (±10.8)70.7 (±8.1)72.2 (±8.2)<0.001
Nighttime mean systolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD117.8 (±13.4)142.4 (±18.9)122.4 (±16.9)114.5 (±14.8)<0.001
Nighttime mean diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD63.2 (±10.2)72.6 (±12.56)64.9 (±10.0)64.1 (±8.7)<0.001
Mean no. of antihypertensive medications, mean ± SD3.5(±0.6)3.8(±0.9)4.5(±0.7)2.1(±0.8)<0.001
β-Blockers, n (%)30 (75%)122 (75.3%)257 (94.1%)295 (41.5%)<0.001
Calcium channel blockers, n (%)29 (72.5%)106 (65.4%)194 (71.1%)247 (34.7%)<0.001
ACE inhibitors, n (%)17 (42.5%)68 (42.0%)146 (53.5%)341 (48.0%)0.10
Angiotensin receptor blockers, n (%)13 (32.5%)61 (37.6%)111 (40.7%)186 (26.2%)<0.001
Vasodilators, n (%)8 (20%)60 (37.0%)92 (33.7%)30 (4.2%)<0.001
α-Blockers, n (%)9 (22.5%)61 (37.7%)134 (49.1%)69 (9.7%)<0.001
α2-Agonists, n (%)2 (5%)16 (9.9%)40 (14.6%)11 (1.5%)<0.001
Diuretics (any), n (%)33 (82.5%)127 (78.4%)244 (89.3%)315 (44.3%)<0.001
  • VA, Veterans Affairs; champus, Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services; MI, myocardial infarction; BMI, body mass index; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme.

  • a ABPM-ATRH, apparent treatment resistant hypertension by ABPM criteria or use of more than 3 antihypertensive medications; white coat-ATRH, apparent treatment resistant hypertension by office BP but not by ABPM criteria.