Table 4.

Hazard ratios for clinical outcomes in participants with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-apparent treatment resistant hypertension and white coat-apparent treatment resistant hypertension compared to no apparent treatment resistant hypertension

OutcomeHazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
UnadjustedModel AModel BModel C
Composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and heart failure
 Ambulatory BP monitoring apparent treatment-resistant hypertension2.55 (1.94 to 3.35)2.22 (1.67 to 2.96)1.48 (1.09 to 2.0)1.11 (0.8 to 1.55)
 White coat apparent treatment-resistant hypertension1.68 (0.82 to 3.47)1.38 (0.66 to 2.87)0.94 (0.44 to 1.99)0.82 (0.37 to 1.84)
Kidney outcomes
 Ambulatory BP monitoring apparent treatment-resistant hypertension3.04 (2.32 to 3.98)2.94 (2.22 to 3.9)2.43 (1.81 to 3.26)1.35 (0.96 to 1.9)
 White coat apparent treatment-resistant hypertension2.97 (1.66 to 5.32)2.59 (1.43 to 4.72)2.01 (1.1 to 3.67)1.37 (0.68 to 2.76)
All-cause mortality
 Ambulatory BP monitoring apparent treatment-resistant hypertension2.1 (1.55 to 2.84)1.8 (1.31 to 2.48)1.42 (1.01 to 1.99)1.16 (0.78 to 1.71)
 White coat apparent treatment-resistant hypertension0.48 (0.12 to 1.97)0.43 (0.1 to 1.76)0.34 (0.08 to 1.4)0.43 (0.1 to 1.77)
  • Model A: adjusted for age, sex, race, and clinical center. Model B: adjusted for model A plus diabetes, smoking status, history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin. Model C: adjusted for model B plus eGFR and urine protein-creatinine ratio, 24-hour and spot measures combined adding spline terms of log urine protein-creatinine ratio. Kidney outcomes: 50% decrease in eGFR or ESKD defined as renal transplantation or start of long-term renal dialysis. Ambulatory BP monitoring apparent treatment-resistant hypertension indicates apparent treatment-resistant hypertension by ambulatory BP monitoring criteria or use of more than three antihypertensive medications; white coat apparent treatment-resistant hypertension indicates apparent treatment-resistant hypertension by office BP but not by ambulatory BP monitoring criteria.