Table 2.

Multivariable analysis of predictors associated with key outcomes in the use of ACEI or ARB before hospitalization

PredictorProbability of AKI on Admission(odds ratio; 95% CI)Probability of AKI during Hospitalization(odds ratio; 95% CI)eGFR on AdmissionLength of Stay
Estimated Effect (SEM)P ValueEstimated Effect (SEM)P Value
Age, yr1.02 (1.00 to 1.05)1.01 (0.99 to 1.04)−0.77 (0.07)<0.001−0.002 (0.03)0.95
History of ARB use2.23 (0.92 to 5.44)1.34 (0.52 to 3.43)−9.59 (3.64)<0.013.13 (1.67)0.06
History of ACEI use1.01 (0.38 to 2.71)0.81 (0.28 to 2.31)−3.17 (3.86)0.41−1.86 (1.76)0.29
Female sex0.67 (0.34 to 1.32)0.46 (0.22 to 0.95)a−0.14 (2.08)0.95−1.56 (0.95)0.10
Hypertension3.41 (1.22 to 9.54)a2.57 (0.92 to 7.17)−4.57 (3.27)0.160.60 (1.49)0.69
Diabetes1.43 (0.69 to 2.98)1.40 (0.66 to 2.98)−3.98 (2.58)0.121.41 (1.18)0.23
Coronary artery disease1.55 (0.70 to 3.41)0.92 (0.39 to 2.17)−6.33 (3.12)0.04−0.59 (1.42)0.68
Heart failure1.52 (0.67 to 3.48)2.22 (0.93 to 5.30)−2.54 (3.32)0.441.07 (1.51)0.48
CKD1.02 (0.41 to 2.50)2.37 (0.97 to 5.75)−35.28 (3.49)<0.001−0.61 (1.59)0.70
  • Variables included in the multivariable analysis are based on select demographic and comorbidities significant from the exploratory analysis. For categoric values, odds ratios with 95% CIs are present. For continuous variables, estimated effects with SEMs are presented with associated P values. ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • a P<0.05.