Table 1.

Demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical datasets used to study the association between residential context and kidney health

DatasetsSample SizeYearsLocationsAge at Baseline, yrSpatial UnitaKidney Measures
Urine Protein-Creatinine Ratio, Urine Albumin-Creatinine RatiobSerum CreatinineSerum Cystatin CChronic Kidney Disease MortalityEnd Stage Kidney DiseaseApolipoprotein L1
Demographic studies and datasets
Americans’ Changing Lives36171986–2019US25–84TractIPIPXXIP
Health and Retirement Study25,4441992–2019cUS51–61TractXXXX
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Wave III33,9941988–1994US0–90AddressdXXXX
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, ContinuousApproximately 5000/yr1999–2020cUS0–90AddressdXXXX
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents12,1051994–2018US14–18BlockXIPIPIP
National Vital Statistics System, Mortality DataAll US1968–2017cUSAll USCountyX
Epidemiologic studies and databases
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities15,7921987–2019Multiple US45–64TractXXPXX
Coronary Risk Development in Young Adults51151985–2016Multiple US18–30BlockXXXPPX
Dallas Heart Study35002000–2009Dallas, TX30–65BlockXXXPPX
Jackson Heart Study65002000–2012Jackson, MS35–94TractXXXXXX
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis68142000–2018Multiple US45–84TractXXXXXX
Reasons for Geographic Differences in Stroke28,878 (4)2003–2016Multiple US45–98BlockXXXXXX
US Veterans Administration DatabaseAll VA1977–cUSAll VACountyXXXXXX
Clinical studies and databases
Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort54992003–2018Multiple US21–74TractXXXXXX
Clinical Phenotyping Resource and Biobank Core16452009–2019Multiple US30–64eTractXXXX
Cure Glomerulonephropathy24002014–2020Multiple USIPTractXXXXX
Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network25612010–2019Multiple US0–80TractXXXXX
US Renal Data SystemAll ESKD1978–cUSAll ESKDZip codeXX
  • Clinical measures are not necessarily available for all waves of data. The years available include a range of temporal data collection efforts. For example, some studies collect information every 2 years, whereas others collect data every 6 years. US, United States; IP, data collection in progress; P, data possibly available; VA, US Department of Veterans Affairs.

  • a Represents the most spatially granular unit available.

  • b Information generally available on either urine albumin-creatinine ratio or urine protein-creatinine ratio.

  • c Represents ongoing data collection efforts into the indefinite future.

  • d Geospatial data are available to researchers through Census Research Data Centers.

  • e Interquartile range available only.