Table 2.

Hazard ratio (95% CI) for the association of anemia (versus no anemia) with incident ESKD and death

OutcomeMSM with Time-Varying Anemia and Time-Varying CovariatesaCause-Specific Hazards Model with Baseline Anemia and Baseline CovariatesaCause-Specific Hazards Model with Time-Varying Anemia and Baseline Covariatesa
ESKD1.62 (1.24 to 2.11)1.26 (1.08 to 1.47)1.31 (1.12 to 1.54)
Death0.95 (0.78 to 1.16)0.97 (0.83 to 1.13)1.01 (0.87 to 1.17)
  • Time-updated variables included anemia status, BP, body mass index, eGFR, and proteinuria. Hazard ratio for MSM estimates reflect the risk for outcome of incident ESKD for the scenario in which anemia status was unchanged at all study visits. MSM, marginal structural model; ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • a Covariates: clinical site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, cardiovascular disease, systolic BP, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, phosphate level, c-reactive protein, eGFR, 24-h urine protein, ACEi/ARB therapy, β-blocker therapy, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, serum albumin.