Table 2.

Attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs toward xenotransplantation among kidney transplant providers and kidney patients at University of Alabama at Birminghama

Attitudes/Perceptions/BeliefsKidney Providers N=40 (20%)Kidney Patients N=163 (80%)P Value
Patient perceptions0.0003
 How influential are your/your patients’ religious beliefs when making medical decisions?
  Never/sometimes18 (45%)121 (75%)
  Undecided4 (10%)17 (11%)
  Always/often18 (45%)24 (15%)
 In your opinion, would the fact that pigs used for transplantation are genetically engineered to help prevent organ rejection in a human influence you/your patients’ consideration of a pig kidney transplant?0.001
  Yes17 (43%)42 (25%)
  No23 (58%)96 (59%)
  Undecided0 (0%)25 (15%)
Clinical decision making
 If pig kidney transplantation had similar risks and results as human kidney transplantation, would you consider a pig kidney as a treatment option for you/your patients?0.04
  No2 (5%)10 (6%)
  Possibly4 (10%)14 (9%)
  Undecided2 (5%)26 (16%)
  Probably13 (33%)21 (13%)
  Yes19 (48%)91 (56%)
 If the risks and results of pig kidney transplantation were not as good as human organ transplantation, would you be prepared to recommend/accept a pig kidney as a bridge until a human donor kidney became available?0.57
  No9 (23%)35 (22%)
  Possibly8 (20%)29 (18%)
  Undecided11 (28%)29 (18%)
  Probably4 (10%)17 (11%)
  Yes8 (20%)50 (31%)
Psychosocial beliefs
 If you/your patient successfully received a pig kidney transplant, do you believe that it could change their personality?0.72
  No/possibly34 (85%)129 (80)
  Undecided4 (10%)23 (14%)
  Yes/probably2 (5%)10 (6%)
 If you/your patient successfully received a pig kidney transplant, do you believe that it could change how other people see or interact with you/your patient?0.38
  No/possibly35 (88%)128 (79%)
  Undecided1 (3%)16 (10%)
  Yes/probably4 (10%)18 (11%)
 If you/your patient received a successful pig kidney transplant, do you believe that you/they would be “less human”?0.86
  No/possibly37 (93%)149 (91%)
  Undecided2 (5%)7 (4%)
  Yes/probably1 (3%)7 (4%)
 Do you believe that there are moral and/or ethical reasons why we should not consider xenotransplantation as a form of treatment?0.31
  No/possibly32 (80%)135 (84%)
  Undecided4 (10%)20 (12%)
  Yes/probably4 (10%)6 (4%)
 Do you believe that there are religious reasons why we should not consider xenotransplantation as a form of treatment?0.13
  No/possibly28 (70%)132 (83%)
  Undecided6 (15%)18 (11%)
  Yes/probably6 (15%)10 (6%)
 Do you believe there are public health risks associated with xenotransplantation (i.e., zoonosis)?
  No/possibly23 (56%)Not asked
  Undecided12 (30%)Not asked
  Yes/probably5 (13%)Not asked
  • a Counts, N, and percentages shown for all responses.