Table 6.

Estimated association between each sleep problem and all-cause mortality, overall and by CKD status in 2005–2014 for the total study population

Sleep CharacteristicsAll (n=27,322)No CKD (n=22,100)CKD (n=5222)
Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Trouble sleeping1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)1.4 (0.89 to 2.1)1.5 (0.89 to 2.5)1.3 (0.76 to 2.4)1.5 (0.97 to 2.3)1.4 (0.77 to 2.4)
Sleep disorder1.9 (1.2 to 3.0)1.3 (0.79 to 2.2)2.2 (1.0 to 4.8)1.7 (0.74 to 3.9)1.2 (0.68 to 2.2)1.1 (0.50 to 2.3)
Nocturia3.2 (2.5 to 4.3)1.3 (0.96 to 1.8)2.7 (1.8 to 4.0)1.4 (0.83 to 2.4)2.1 (1.4 to 3.3)1.3 (0.77 to 2.3)
Sleep duration
 Inadequate sleep1.0 (0.76 to 1.5)0.95 (0.63 to 1.4)0.83 (0.54 to 1.3)0.70 (0.41 to 1.2)1.4 (0.86 to 2.1)1.3 (0.75 to 2.3)
 Recommended111111
 Excessive sleep4.7 (3.1 to 7.4)2.1 (1.3 to 3.5)3.1 (1.3 to 7.3)2.5 (1.0 to 6.2)3.6 (2.0 to 6.4)2.2 (1.2 to 4.3)
  • Sensitivity analysis of all participants in the study population where follow-up is limited to 1 year. Adjusted for survey year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, other sleep problems, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, cancer, and medications that affect drowsiness and cognition (sedatives, stimulants, and other drugs). Additional adjustment of CKD status for the analysis for "all". Data are presented as crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs. HR, hazard ratio.