Table 5.

Estimated associations of excessive sleep and category of the sleep-problem index score with all-cause mortality, by CKD status: total study population, 2005–2014

AssociationAll (n=27,322)No CKD (n=22,100)CKD (n=5222)
Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Excessive sleep versus recommended sleepa3.6 (3.0 to 4.4)1.7 (1.3 to 2.1)2.7 (1.8 to 3.9)2.3 (1.5 to 3.6)2.6 (2.0 to 3.3)1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)
Sleep-problem index scoreb
 0111111
 11.6 (1.4 to 1.8)1.1 (0.98 to 1.3)1.4 (1.1 to 1.7)1.1 (0.85 to 1.4)1.5 (1.2 to 1.8)1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)
 2–42.2 (1.9 to 2.5)1.2 (1.1 to 1.5)1.9 (1.5 to 2.4)1.2 (0.95 to 1.6)1.6 (1.3 to 2.0)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)
P for trendc<0.0010.01<0.0010.11<0.0010.02
  • Sleep-problem index was created by summing the number of problems (trouble sleeping, sleep disorder, nocturia, inadequate sleep) reported by each subjects. Data are presented as crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs. HR, hazard ratio.

  • a Adjusted for survey year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, cancer, sleep problem index, and medications that affect drowsiness (sedatives, stimulants, and other drugs). Additional adjustment of CKD status for the analysis for "all".

  • b Adjusted for excessive sleep, survey year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer. Additional adjustment of CKD status for the analysis for "all".

  • c Sleep-problem index was considered as an interval variable (0–4) to test for a monotonic trend.