Table 4.

Estimated association between each sleep problem and all-cause mortality, by CKD status: total study population, 2005–2014

Sleep ProblemAll (n=27,322)No CKD (n=22,100)CKD (n=5222)
Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Trouble sleeping1.4 (1.2 to 1.5)1.0 (0.88 to 1.2)1.4 (1.1 to 1.6)1.1 (0.89 to 1.4)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)0.97 (0.81 to 1.2)
Sleep disorder1.6 (1.4 to 1.9)1.2 (0.97 to 1.5)1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)1.1 (0.86 to 1.5)1.2 (0.97 to 1.6)1.2 (0.93 to 1.7)
Nocturia2.9 (2.6 to 3.3)1.2 (1.1 to 1.4)2.5 (2.2 to 2.9)1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)1.8 (1.6 to 2.2)1.2 (0.99 to 1.5)
Sleep duration
 Inadequate1.0 (0.91 to 1.1)1.1 (0.95 to 1.2)0.99 (0.84 to 1.2)0.99 (0.83 to 1.2)1.0 (0.89 to 1.2)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)
 Recommended111111
 Excessive3.6 (3.0 to 4.4)1.7 (1.3 to 2.1)2.7 (1.8 to 3.9)2.3 (1.5 to 3.6)2.6 (2.0 to 3.3)1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)
  • Data are presented as crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs. Data adjusted for survey year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, cancer, other sleep problems, and medications that affect drowsiness and cognition (sedatives, stimulants, and other drugs). Additional adjustment of CKD status for the analysis for "all". HR, hazard ratio.