Table 2.

Risk of rapid eGFR decline, incident reduced eGFR, and incident albuminuria associated with housing insecurity

AnalysisRegression Estimate
Rapid eGFR decline (N=1262; 199 events), incidence rate ratio (95% CI)
 Model 11.25 (0.95 to 1.66)
 Model 21.24 (0.77 to 1.53)
 Model 31.24 (0.95 to 1.62)
 Model 41.16 (0.88 to 1.52)
Incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (N=1220; 64 events), odds ratio (95% CI)
 Model 10.63 (0.34 to 1.16)
 Model 20.81 (0.43 to 1.54)
 Model 30.82 (0.43 to 1.56)
 Model 40.72 (0.36 to 1.43)
Incident ACR ≥30 mg/g (N=1120; 74 events), odds ratio (95% CI)
 Model 12.04 (1.29 to 3.29)
 Model 23.83 (2.19 to 6.71)
 Model 33.80 (2.21 to 6.52)
 Model 43.23 (1.90 to 5.50)
  • Model 1 was unadjusted; model 2 was adjusted for demographics (age, race, interaction with race × housing insecurity, sex at birth, and poverty status); model 3 was adjusted for demographics and clinical variables (eGFR, ACR, systolic BP, and diabetes status); model 4 was adjusted for demographics, clinical variables, and financial resource strain variables (unemployment, food insecurity, ability to afford medical care). CI, confidence interval; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio.